Land Use and Agriculture Other Types of Crops, Area-Production and Yield of Selected Crops in India (1951 − 2001) Part 4

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Other Types of Crops

Cotton

India is one of the leading cotton producing countries in the world. The fibre of the cotton crop is used as raw material for the textile industries whereas oil extracted from its seeds is used in the Vanaspati industry. Cotton seeds are also used as cattle feed.

Cotton requires a moderate rainfall of about . and a cloud free weather for about 150 days at the time of flowering and ball opening. Well drained black soils of the Deccan Plateau are considered ideal for its cultivation, though it is also grown on alluvial soils of the northern plains.

India produces about of the world’s cotton and is the fourth largest producing country after the USA, China, and Russia. However, the quality of cotton is rather poor. Therefore, the long staple cotton is imported to make good quality of fibre. The good quality of cotton is grown in Punjab and Haryana. Leading producers of cotton in India are Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Punjab, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan.

Sugarcane

Sugarcane is the native plant of India. The country has the largest area under this crop in the world. It requires a hot and humid climate. Irrigation facility is required if rainfall is not enough. Fertile loamy and black soils are ideal for this crop.

Sugarcane is cultivated in two belts- in Northern Plains from Punjab to Bihar, and in Peninsular India from Gujarat to Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. More than 60 % of the total area under sugarcane is found in the North Plains. The yield per unit area of sugarcane in south India is higher than in the north India.

The leading producers of sugarcane are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh. During 2000-2001, about 300 lakh tonnes of sugarcane was produced in India which is the highest in the world. Efforts are being made to increase production of sugarcane by developing hybrid varieties. The Sugarcane Research Institute at Coimbatore is engaged in its research.

Sugarcane Growing Areas In India

Image of Sugarcane Growing Areas in India

Sugarcane Growing Areas In India

Spices

India produces a wide variety of spices including black pepper, cardamom, chillies, turmeric, ginger, cloves etc. Indian spices are known for their quality and find a market all over the world.

Chilly is an important condiment crop which is widely grown in the country and shares more than 1/3rd or 34 % of the total production of spices in India. Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Karnataka are the leading producers of chillies.

After chillies, turmeric is the second important spice crop in India. Major producing states are Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Orrisa, and Bihar.

Among all the states, Kerala is one state where a large number of spices such as cloves, black pepper, ginger, and cardamom are produced in the largest quantity. The other leading states in the production of spices are Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, and Bihar.

Area, Production and Yield of Selected Crops in India (1951-2001)

Area, Production and Yield of Selected Crops in India (1951-2001)
Title: Area, Production and Yield of Selected Crops in India (1951-2001)

Crops

Area (in lakh hectares)

Production (in lakh tonnes)

Yield (kg / hectare)

1950-51

2000-01

1950-51

2000-01

1950-51

2000-01

Tea

3.1

4.4

2.8

8.7

87.6

1996

Cotton

59.0

86.0

31.0*

97.0*

98.3

191

Rice

388.0

444.0

206.0

849.0

668.0

1913

Wheat

98.0

251.0

65.0

688.0

815.0

2743

Sugarcane

29.0**

43.0

1100.0**

2996.0

33422.0

69636

* Bales of 170 kg.

** 1960-61

Fruits

India accounts for about 10 % of the production of fruits in the world. It leads the world in the production of mango, banana, sapota, and lemons.

A large variety of fruits are grown in India. Mango, bananas, citrus fruits, pineapple, papaya, guava, sapota, jack fruit, litchi, and grapes are tropical and subtropical fruits. The fruits of temperate areas are apple, pear, peach, plum, apricot, almond, and walnut which are grown mostly in the mountainous areas of the country. The important fruits of arid zone of India are aonla, ber, pomegranate and figs.

Mango is the most important among fruit crops covering about 39 % of the area and account for 23 % of the total fruit production in the country. More than one-half or about 54 % of the world’s mango is produced in India. The mango tree grows throughout the country especially in Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala. Dussehri and Alphonso varieties of mango are in great demand in foreign countries. The country exports such varieties to earn foreign exchange.

In terms of area, citrus fruits rank next only to mango. Oranges and lemons are grown in Assam, Maharashtra, Punjab, and Tamil Nadu. Undulating sloppy terrain is most suitable for the growth of citrus fruits.

India is ranking first in the world in the banana production. Banana ranks third in areal coverage and are grown mainly in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala. It is also grown in West Bengal, Orissa, and Assam.

Apple is the fourth major fruit crop, mainly grown in the Himalayan region of the country. Guava is largely produced in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, whereas pineapple is produced in Assam, Meghalaya, West Bengal, Tripura, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, and Karnataka.

Vegetables

India is the second largest producer of vegetables in the world next only to China. It contributes about 13 % to the world vegetable production. It occupies first position in the production of cauliflowers, second in onion, and third in cabbage in the world. Other major vegetable crops are potato, peas, tomato and brinjal. More than fifty varieties of vegetables are grown in India.

Floriculture

With breaking of trade barriers in post-globalisation phase, international trade in vegetables, fruits and flowers has become lucrative. India can earn a sizable amount of foreign exchange by exporting flowers. Flower such as rose, jasmine, marigold, chrysanthemum, tuberose, and aster are grown over large area in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Delhi, Uttarakhand, Assam, and Manipur.

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