Transport, Communication and Trade in India Communication, Postal Services, Telecommunication, Mass-Communication, Trade Part 5

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Communication

Communication system contributes to the development of the economy, social relationships, and also helps in promoting cultural unity. Internationally, it brings diverse people of the world close to one another.

image of process of communication

Image of Process of Communication

image of process of communication

In the event of any impending calamity, accident or emergency, instant means of communication flash the news across the globe so that relief can be rushed to the spot immediately.

Postal Services

It is the most commonly used mode of communication in India. The postal services play a vital role in the rural areas of the country. About 99% of the villages are enjoying postal services today.

At present about 1.55 lakh post offices are providing postal services covering every part of the country. In tune with the rest of the world the Indian postal services are also being modernised.

  • Postal Index Number or PIN has facilitated the prompt delivery of mail.

  • Speed post service has been introduced for fast and quick delivery of post.

  • Quick Mail Service (QMS) is another step in this direction.

Besides these, satellite money order scheme was introduced in 1994 as a pilot project for providing services to hilly, backward, and remote areas from six principal cities. International mail services carried by air and sea are an important step in linking the foreign countries with India.

Telecommunication

It is the modern device for the communication at individual and mass level. Telegraph, Telephone, Telex and Fax are the main means of tele communication. By the end of 2004-05, India was the 10th largest telecom network in terms of number of phones.

Telegraph: It is comparatively an old mean for providing quick communication in event of any emergency. At present about forty thousand telegraph offices have been working in the country.

Telephone: There has been a very fast progress in telephone facilities. As on 31 March 2006, the network comprises of 142.09 million telephone connections and over 2.34 (February, 2006) million Public Call Office (PCOs). There are over 62.90 million cellular subscribers in the country and the cellular customer base is growing at the rate of over two million per month. Telephone services have been expanding very rapidly in the country. STD (Subscriber Trunk Dialling) facilities are available to all the big and small towns of the country. Fully automatic International Subscriber Dialling (ISD) service is available to almost all the countries.

Telex: Telex services make possible to send information in printed form. More than 200 cities of India enjoy the service. Use of satellite has revolutionized the telecommunication system to day.

Mass-Communication

Radio and television are the electronic media of mass communication. They play an important role in individual and social life.

Radio: It is a powerful medium which provide all sorts of useful information, news, and variety of entertainment. There are about 223 radio broadcasting stations in the country and provide services to 91.42% of the area and 99.13% of the total population. Now, FM Radio services have given a new face to radio transmission.

Television Service: It was started in 1959 in India. However, the real expansion of T.V. Service began after 1980. Only recently several channels on television have been made available to private parties. This has promoted keen competition to improve the quality of programme even of Doordarshan. Doordarshan’s network consist of 64 Doordarshan Kendra (studio centres), and 1400 transmitters (1134 transmitters for DD1, 153 transmitters for DD News, 109 transmitters for regional services and 1 digital transmitter each at Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, and Mumbai). DD1 provide services 79% of area and about 91% of the total population.

Cinema: It is yet another mean of mass communication. It entertains millions of people every day.

Print Media

Newspapers, periodicals, and journals fall in the category of print media. Print media expanded very rapidly after independence. There were 62,550 daily newspapers, periodicals, and different journals in Indian languages on 31st March, 2006.

These were 6,800 dailies, 369 tri/bi-weeklies, 21,453 weeklies, 8,227 fortnightlies, 18,545 monthlies, 4,340 quarterlies, 584 annuals, and 2,232 of the other periodicity. The largest number of newspapers and periodicals registered in any Indian language is in Hindi (24,017), second is English (8,768).

Trade

The services which involve the activities of buying and selling of goods are termed as trade, such as transport, communication, banking etc. It is also a tertiary service and an important infrastructure for the development of economy including agriculture and industry in the country. Trade may take place at various levels- local, regional, national, or international.

The growth of trade depends on accessibility of a well-developed market and well-advanced communication system.

International Trade

It involves selling and buying various commodities at the international level. International trade may be multilateral or bi-lateral depending upon the number of parties involved. India’s international trade has grown very rapidly after Independence. India’s total international trade in the year 1950-51 stood at Rs. 1,214 crores. Since then this has witnessed continuous increase with occasional down twins. During the year 2004-05 the value reached at Rs. 8, 37,133 crores.

Though, India has trade relations with all the major trading blocks and all the geographical regions of the world, the major trade partners are the USA, Russia, countries of West Europe, Japan, and Oceania. In dollar terms, Asia and Oceania accounted for 47.41% of India’s total exports followed by west Europe (23.80%) and America (20.42%) during 2004-05. India’s imports were highest from Asia and Oceania (35.40%) followed by west Europe (22.60%) and America (8.36%) during the same period.

Export

During the colonial era major commodities of our exports were either raw materials like cotton, jute, leather, spices, minerals, or food items like wheat, tea, coffee, and spices etc. All the trade was channelized through Britain. After Independence there have been significant changes in the items of export because of the rapid industrial development in the country. Now India exports nearly 7500 commodities. There has been an appreciable growth in exports since 1950-51 when it was worth only of Rs. 607 crores. It has increased to Rs. 3, 56,069 crores by 2004-05.

While there are year to year variations, some of the major commodities whose exports have been increasing over the last few years and also in 2004-05 include engineering goods, gems and jewellery, chemical and related products, textiles, petroleum products, agriculture and allied products, and ores and minerals.

There has been a significant change in the export products since Independence. The largest value of exports is now obtained manufactured products.

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