Population Composition in India Linguistic Age Composition, Composition, Religious Composition Part 2

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Age Composition

Age-sex pyramid refers to the composition of population in terms of the age and sex of people. It gives an indication regarding the growth rate of population and the nature of population in terms of working and non-working sections. As per the census of India 2001, children up to 14 years of age account for 35.3% of the total population. The age group of 15-59 years accounts for 56.9% of total population and the age group of 60 years and above for 7.4% of population. The age structure has been undergoing some gradual changes during the recent decades.

One of the trends is that proportion of the younger population i.e. in the age group of 0-14 years is declining and the percentage of persons on the working age group, i.e. 15 to 59 age group as well as old age population i.e. 60 years and above is increasing. But in 2001 Census, the percentage of persons in the age group of 15-59 declined from 57.7% in 1991 to 56.9% in 2001 Census. However, the proportion of people in old age group has increased from 6.6% in 1991 to 7.4% in 2001 Census. The proportion of young population i.e. 0-14 years declined from 36.5% in 1991 to 35.3% in 2001 Census.

Percentage Wise Distribution of Total Population by Age and Sex in India 2001

Percentage Wise Distribution of Total Population by Age and Sex in India 2001
Title: Percentage Wise Distribution of Total Population by Age and Sex in India 2001

Age Group

Total Person

Male

Female

0-4

10.7

10.7

10.7

5-9

12.5

12.5

12.4

10-14

12.1

12.3

11.9

15-19

9.7

10.1

9.3

20-24

8.7

8.7

8.8

25-29

8.1

7.8

8.4

30-34

7.2

7.0

7.4

35-39

6.9

6.8

7.0

40-44

5.4

5.6

5.2

45-49

4.6

4.7

4.5

50-54

3.6

3.7

3.4

55-59

2.7

2.6

2.8

60-64

2.7

2.6

2.8

65-69

1.9

1.8

2.1

70-74

1.4

1.4

1.4

75-79

0.6

0.6

0.7

80 and above

0.8

0.7

0.8

Linguistic Composition

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Image Result for Linguistic Composition of India

Image result for linguistic composition of india

India has also great deal of linguistic diversity like physical environment. The languages spoken and their dialects number is in hundreds. In 1961 census, 1652 languages were listed as mother tongues in India. Out of these only 23 languages together accounted for 97% of total population of the country. Out of these 23 numerically major languages, the Constitution of India recognizes only 18 languages besides English in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution. These languages are Assamese, Bengali, Hindi, Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada, Marathi, Gujarati, Oriya, Punjabi, Kashmiri, Sanskrit, Konkani, Sindhi, Nepali, Manipuri, and Urdu.

Out of these above mentioned 18 languages, Hindi is spoken by most of the people whereas Sanskrit is spoken by the least. The languages also vary slightly in terms of the meaning of different words and their pronunciation. Variations in the way of speaking of a language lead to emergence of dialects of language. Thus, a dialect is something akin to a part of some language and they can be thought as regional language also. Some of the examples of the dialects of Hindi Rajasthani, Haryanvi, Bhojpuri or Poorvi dialects etc.

Language is an important constituent of culture and various languages and their dialects are spoken in different parts of India. It makes Indian culture rich and diversified. Also, the languages have an almost complete regional identity in the country and the distribution of major languages has been considered as a basis for re-organization of states after independence. On the basis of numerical strength, India can be divided into twelve principal linguistic regions. So linguistic region is an area in which most of the people speak a common language. The languages forming linguistic regions in India are- Kashmiri, Punjabi, Hindi/Urdu, Bengali, Assamese, Oriya, Gujarati, Marathi, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, and alayalam.

Classification and Distributiomn of Indian Languages

Though all the languages spoken in India seem to be different from each other, they can be grouped into four linguistic families on the basis of their roots and genesis. The four linguistic families are: Austric Family (Nishada), Dravidian Family (Dravida), Sino-Tibetan Family (Kirata), and Indo-European Family (Arya).

The speeches of the Austric family are spoken by tribal people in Meghalaya, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and in parts of central Indian tribal belt, especially in the districts of Santhal Parganas, Ranchi, and Mayurbhanj.

The languages and dialects of Sino-Tibetan family are spoken by tribal people in North-Eastern region of the country and in the Sub-Himalayan region in the north and north west. These languages are spoken by people living in Ladakh (Jammu and Kashmir), parts of Himachal Pradesh, and Sikkim also.

The speakers of the languages of Dravidian family are more numerous in southern part of India. Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala are the states where these languages are spoken by the majority of population. A large number of tribal people living in peninsular plateau region also speak speeches of this family.

The speaker of the languages of Indo-Aryan family are concentrated more in northern part of the country and also in central parts. The entire north Indian plain is inhabited by the speakers of this family. Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh also have large population of speakers of these languages.

The proportion of the speakers of languages of different families in the total population varies significantly. While the Aryans (Indo-European Family) languages are spoken by more than 70% of the people, the Sino-Tibetan languages are spoken by only about 0.85 % of the population and Dravidian languages are spoken by about 20 % of the people.

Religious Composition

Indian society is divided into a large number of religious communities. Broadly there are seven major religions. The majority of people follow one of these seven major religions. These are Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Zoroastrians. Hindus are the largest religious community in India. According to 2001 census, 80.5% percentage of population follows this religion. Followers of this religion are more concentrated in the northern plains and the northern parts of the plateau region. However, they are sufficiently numerous in all parts of the country except a few north-eastern states and union territory of Lakshadweep. But the distribution of the other religious communities is less continuous and there are only some pockets in which they have larger concentration.

The largest number of Muslim populations is in Uttar Pradesh followed by West Bengal and Bihar. But the Muslim population make a large proportion of the total population in Jammu and Kashmir and union territory of Lakshadweep. Apart from these above-mentioned states and union territories, other states where Muslims have significant presence (more than national average) are Assam and Kerala. If we look at the spatial distribution, then it is observed that most of these states stretch over northern great plains except Kerala and Jammu and Kashmir.

The largest concentration of Christians is found in the state of Kerala followed by Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. But if we look at the proportion to total population, then it is found in some of the north eastern states namely Mizoram, Meghalaya, and Nagaland. As far as Sikhs are concerned more than 3/4th Sikh population are found in Punjab alone. Besides Punjab, neighbouring districts of Haryana and Rajasthan also have concentration of Sikh population. Apart from these states, terai region of Uttarakhand and National Capital Territory of Delhi have significant number of Sikh populations.

As far as Buddhists and Jains are concerned, Maharashtra has the largest number of populations belong to both the religions. Apart from Maharashtra, traditional pockets of Buddhists are Ladakh area of Jammu and Kashmir, Dharamshala (McLeod Ganj) and surrounding districts of Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, and Tripura. Similarly, besides Maharashtra, Jains have significant presence in the states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh. Zoroastrians are as such very few in numbers and most of them are found in and around Mumbai in Maharashtra.

Population by Religion in 2001

Population by Religion in 2001
Title: Population by Religion in 2001

Religious Groups

% To Total Population

Hindus

80.5

Muslims

13.6

Christians

2.33

Sikhs

0.86

Buddhists

0.76

Jains

0.40

Others

0.53

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