Data Collection, Processing and Analysis Temperature Conditions, Development Level Part 2

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Temperature Conditions:

Temperature Conditions
Temperature Conditions

Very Cold

Cold

Cool

Moderately Warm

Hot

Very Hot

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Development Level:

Development Level
Development level

Under Developed

Very Low Level

Low Level

Medium Level

High Level

Very High Level

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Field Sketches: Making of field sketches on the spot is an essential component of field survey in geography. These are simple, rough drawings, or design done rapidly to depict the ground truth on a piece of paper. Geographical facts like structure or form of physical landscape, location and site, mobility, intensity of interactions, patterns of level use, distance, directions, and interdependence of certain natural or cultural objects can be depicted symbolically in the form of field sketches.

Photographs: Camera is one of the important equipment that is needed during the course of a field work and data collection. It is needed for taking photographs of typical features. Photographs present the view of a landscape in its totality, activity in operation, and events in their occurrences. Photographs provide comprehensive data bases for analysis and interpretation. Certain aspects that need more time to record such as conditions in a slum locality, variety of landscapes, plant species, office, and factory systems can be photographed and the output can be used for the explanations and analysis. Photographs are used to supplement the results.

Methods of Administering the Questionnaires and Survey Schedules: The questionnaires are the set of questions framed for specific purpose of field work. Before designing the questions, the purpose of specific problem is divided into various steps and phases. After this logical sequence of questions is to be developed so that desired response can be obtained. The coding of questions (each question to be given a numerical code) is another important dimension required for the transfer of data/information to computers. The whole questionnaire is divided into schedules sets like household schedule, amenities and facilities schedule, function or activity schedule. Thus, the questionnaire is a set of schedules having purpose specific questions. Schedule of time is another dimension worked out to complete the field work in given period.

Normally, the administration of questionnaire will follow a sequence of procedures in the manner given below:

Building Rapport: It refers to the atmosphere of entire relationship between respondent and interviewer. It would be necessary for him to establish a deeper kind of personal relationship with the respondent.

Asking the Questions: The interviewer’s job of asking questions from the questionnaire is through the use of carefully worded questions transmitted to the respondent in verbatim which will help in achieving most of the standardization in the interview. The major aims of putting questions to a variety of respondents are to have complete and clear response about the point of investigation.

Use of The Field Sketches and Sketch Maps: The field sketches are additional supports to the questionnaires in the collection of primary data. Field sketches supplement the set of information by producing a rough image of physical as well as cultural landscapes. These are the free hand pencil or pen drawn images on the field diary. These sketches help remembering and recollection of field relations. They also substantiate the facts as a visual presentation.

Collection of Information: Both the tools of registration and recording help us in the collection of primary data. With the help of these tools, we try to transfer the facts from field into data and tables. In this process of collection, there is obviously the loss of some information. Nevertheless, a good deal of satisfactory information is collected and utilized for the purpose of analysis and interpretation. Based on the set of questionnaires, schedule administered to the respondent, the desired information/data is collected. The collection of information could be a routine as well as specific purpose exercise.

The routine data collection could relate to daily sales, commuting population, movements of goods etc. Similarly, recording of weather elements like temperature, air pressure, precipitation, direction of winds, cloud cover, sea conditions etc. is a routine data collection. There are many other examples of daily data collection. Based on the daily information or facts, seasonal trends, and annual averages are worked out. The purpose specific data is collected at one point of time only.

Precautions in Collecting the Information: The task of collecting the needed genuine information is difficult one. The collection of data from field situations is a complicated affair compared to the office or organizational situation. To get unambiguous, unbiased, and correct information from field, specific precautions need to be observed. These are related to the non-cooperation, incorrect information, and tensions. The following precautions need to be observed to overcome these difficulties:

  • The collection of information needs to be done in a friendly way. The interviewer is supposed to remain humble, polite, and establish good rapport with the respondent.

  • The use of words and sentences should not sound unfamiliar and causing hurt to the sentiments of the respondents. Such words and sentences need to be replaced by more appropriate words.

  • Socially unacceptable questions need to be avoided. If so required, indirect information be used for the purpose.

  • The respondents should not be kept in dark about the purpose of the field work. The respondent may not like to answer the questions if he is not clearly explained about the objective of the fieldwork and more specifically about his selection as sample for the data collection.

  • The respondent needs to be assured of his/her identity and response to remain undisclosed (anonymous) and his/her cooperation to be duly acknowledged in the work.

  • The intentions of the interview need to be given convincing explanations. The information collected is in no way going to affect the respondent adversely i.e., to impose a check upon his activities.

Selection of Samples and Sample Size: A sample is a part of a larger group or area selected for obtaining information about the whole group or area known as the universe of the study. The part of the whole is called sample and is used to ascertain the characteristics of the universe of the study. While choosing a sample, the population is assumed to be composed of individual area units or members of the group. Some of these units or members of the population selected for detailed study are called the samples. The procedure dealing with the selection of a part of a group from the universe to obtain information about the whole or the universe is known as sampling.

A scheme for obtaining a suitable sample from a given universe is known as sampling design. It also indicates the size of the sample to be used keeping in view the cost involved and the precision of the result required. When the entire universe is taken into consideration for the study, it is known as census survey. Examples are population census, agricultural census and so on.

Identification of Samples: The identification of samples is the first task while conducting the field survey. The selection of sample should be such that it reflects the characteristics of the whole. The sample should not be identical as it leads to error.

Sampling Techniques: Samples are selected to avoid unnecessary large expenditures likely to be incurred on the total survey of all the units of universe of study. Moreover, a sample study can be completed in a lesser time period compared to the study of universe or population. The level of accuracy also increases when we study smaller area units and vice versa in case of the universe. The measures of assessments, estimates, and projections can be better used for the purpose of planning, execution, and diffusion studies. Some of the popular sampling techniques are discussed here.

Systematic Sampling: The items selected from the population are chosen in a regular way. Such a procedure of sampling is called a systematic sampling. For example, selection of samples in a multiple of 8(8th 16th, 24th etc.), 10 (10th, 20th, 30th etc.), or any other number so decided.

Random Sampling: The selection of samples, in random sampling, depends upon the chance as universe presents homogenous conditions throughout. There are two types of random sampling.

  • Simple Random Sampling: The procedure of sampling in which each unit of universe has equal chance of being included as the sample is known as simple random sampling. For example, in a survey on consumer behaviour each consumer has an equal chance for being selected as a sample.

  • Stratified Random Sampling: This type of sampling procedure is used when considerable heterogeneity is present in the distribution. The selection of samples in such a situation is based on the division of the universe of study into homogeneous subgroups or strata. Certain aspects of study present stratified character like social structure (having groups like general population, SC population, and ST population); economic structure (primary, secondary, tertiary sector etc.). Random samples are selected from each sub group based on their relative significance in the universe.

Sample Size: There are two basic requirements for the sample to fulfil. A sample must be representative and adequate. The sample is said to be representative when it reflects the various patterns and sub classes of the universe of the study. Similarly, a sample is adequate if it provides very precise result to the investigator. It is important to note that larger is the sample size, greater is the accuracy.

Usually a small sample is sufficient if the phenomenon studied is fairly homogeneous which very rarely occurs. Normally, for a field survey sample size chosen is about 5 to 10 % of the total units of the universe. The sum total or aggregate from which the sample is taken and the result is derived is known as the universe or population.