Formatting Paragraphs, Line Markers, Centering, Right Alignment and Left Alignment, Indenting Text, Line Spacing (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Formatting Paragraphs

  • In Word 2007, a paragraph is any amount of text, graphics, object or other items that are followed by a paragraph mark.
  • A paragraph mark is inserted each time while pressing the ENTER key. In order to change the formatting of a paragraph, select the paragraph and then apply the formats you want apply.
  • Paragraph marks store the format of each paragraph. If the paragraph mark is deleted, the text in that paragraph becomes part of the next paragraph.
  • You can format a paragraph by placing the cursor within the paragraph and selecting Home Paragraph subtask menu and click on the down arrow on the lower right side of the subtask menu. This will display the following menu for you to choose the paragraph formatting.
Formatting Paragraphs

Line Markers

  • To insert a new line mark in the same paragraph, press SHIFT + ENTER keys. This action pushes the text down to the next line but does not create a new paragraph.
  • To modify the appearance of paragraphs, use the Ruler, the Formatting toolbar and the Paragraph dialog box or one of Word՚s paragraph formatting shortcut key combinations.
  • The various ways in which the paragraph formatting can be done is described in the following subsections:

Centering, Right Alignment and Left Alignment

By default, the text in Word is left aligned. But these alignments can be changed as described earlier.

Indenting Text

Indenting a paragraph enables it to set off from other text.

  • To indent paragraphs automatically, drag the top half of the triangular indent marker of the horizontal ruler to the right of the desired position.
  • To increase or decrease indents by one Tab stop, use the Increase Indent or Decrease Indent button on the Formatting toolbar.
  • To create a hanging indent (that indents all lines but the first line of a paragraph) , drag the top half of the triangular indent marker in the horizontal ruler to the left of the desired position.

Tab Stops

  • By default, the tab Stops are set at 0.5-inch intervals from the left margin. To increase or decrease the tab length Choose Home ◊ Paragraphs sub task menu and click on the down arrow located near lower right corner to display the paragraphs formatting submenu. Now click on the Tabs button located on the lower left corner to display the tabs submenu. The Tab dialog box appears. Type the length of the tab in inches in the box under Tab stop position of Tabs dialog box. Click on OK. The insertion point can be moved to the next tab stop in the current paragraph by pressing the Tab key.
  • You can also use the horizontal ruler to set a tab stop at a particular position or to change the way text lines up at a tab stop by simply moving the cursor to a place on the horizontal ruler and clicking.
  • To set tab stops:
    • Select the paragraph in which you want to set or change tab stops.
    • To set or change the tab alignment, click the Tab Alignment button at the far left of the horizontal ruler until the tab alignment is the way you want to be.
  • To move a tab stop, point to the tab marker and drag it to a new position. To clear a tab stop, drag the tab marker off the ruler.
  • Also, you can set precise measurements for tab stops by using the Tabs command on the Format menu The spacing between the default Tab Stops can also be changed but this will affect only the active document. To do this, type or select the distance you want between the tab stops in the Default Tab Stops box and then click the OK button in the Tabs dialog box.

Line Spacing

  • Line Spacing determines the height of each line of text in the paragraph. The default (single line spacing) depends on the size of the font characters. Individual line spacing is easy to change.
  • Choose Home Paragraphs sub task menu and click on the down arrow located near lower right corner to display the paragraphs formatting submenu. . The Paragraph dialog box appears. The Indents and Spacing tab of the Paragraph dialog box provides a drop-down under Line spacing: for simple but effective control of the space between lines under most circumstances.
  • All these line spacing settings can be made by choosing the appropriate options from the Line spacing menu in the Paragraph dialog box.
  • When you use these choices, Word will compensate for graphics, superscript and large or small type sizes.

Paragraph Spacing

  • Word enables each paragraph to give unique before and after spacing if you wish. Headings often have different spacing requirements for body text. For instance, you may require different before and after spacing designs for figures and figure captions as well.
  • Choose Home Paragraphs sub task menu and click on the down arrow located near lower right corner to display the paragraphs formatting submenu. The Paragraph dialog box appears. Use drop down submenu in before and after: under Spacing of the Paragraph dialog box to set the paragraph spacing.
  • The advantages of using the Paragraph command are:
    • Spacing before and after paragraphs does not change the point size of your text.
    • You can use different spacing combinations for different purposes.
    • You can make precise adjustments to the spacing between the various text elements.
    • If the paragraph is moved or deleted, its spacing goes with it.
    • If you include spacing in the paragraph styles you use to format text, Word adds the space along with the other formatting. You need not add blank lines manually.

Borders and Shading

  • You can add borders, to any side of a paragraph, and you can add background shading. You can also add borders and shading to ordinary text and to the paragraphs in table cells and frames. Choose Home Paragraphs sub task menu and click on the button to display Border and Shading submenu.
  • The Borders and Shading dialog box appear. Click on the appropriate borders box after selecting Borders tab to select border, select Paragraph under Apply to drop down submenu, click OK.
  • To shade a paragraph, click on Shading tab in Borders and Shading dialog box, select appropriate shade under Fill, and select Paragraph under Apply to drop down submenu, click OK.

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