NIOS Class 10 English Chapter 11 My Elder Brother, Summary (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Summary

  • In life we share relationships of varying intensities with different people both within and outside our family; we have the closest relationship with our family.
  • This story is about two brothers, the narrator Nicky and his elder brother, Valodya. Initially they get along quite well studying and playing together.
  • As they grow up, Nicky starts feeling that Valodya is proud because he believes he is better. Nicky feels quite hurt and thinks that Valodya does not understand his feelings.
  • He resents Valodya՚s ability to have different hobbies which he is unable to imitate.
  • The narrator describes an incident wherein he breaks Valodya՚s treasured scent bottle.
  • Nicky realizes that the scent bottle was important for his brother but he pretends to smile in order to show Valodya that he is not bothered about his brother՚s. As a result, the brothers quarrelled and exchanged heated arguments. They pushed and pulled each other.
  • After the incident of the scent bottle the brothers stop talking to each other. Nicky is very disturbed and feels uncomfortable because he realizes that he is wrong. But Valodya is quite composed and behaves in a normal way. He asks for forgiveness for having upset Nicky.
  • Nicky is touched by Valodya՚s gesture, with tears in his eyes he shakes hands with Valodya and feels better.

Vocabulary

  • Symmetry: exact match in shape and size balance
  • TREASURE: a collection of valuable things
  • Knock over: hit something and make it fall to the ground
  • Brat: a person, especially a child, who behaves badly
  • Scowled: looked in an angry or annoyed way
  • Irresistible: so strong that it can՚t be stopped
  • Scrap: a little bit
  • Pathos: something which arouses a feeling of pity.

Grammar

Pick out words from the text which are opposite in meaning to the following words. Words

(a) inferiority

(b) nothing

(c) misunderstood

(d) please

(e) modest

(f) selfish

Answer:

a. superiority

b. everything

c. understood

d. annoy

e. proud

f. large

hearted

Noun Clause:

A clause is a group of words, which has a subject and a predicate with a finite verb of its own.

Independent clauses and dependent clauses:

  • An independent clause (also called the main clause or principal clause) : An independent clause does not depend on other clauses to make a complete statement.
  • A dependent clause (also called the subordinate clause) : A subordinate clause cannot stand by itself and depends on the main clause to be meaningful.

Types of subordinate clauses Subordinate clauses are of three types:

  • Noun clause
  • Adjective clause
  • Adverb clause

Article

  • In English there are three articles: a, an, and the. Articles are used before nouns or noun equivalents and are a type of adjective.
    • The definite article (the) is used before a noun to indicate that the identity of the noun is known to the reader.
    • The indefinite article (a, an) is used before a noun that is general or when its identity is not known. There are certain situations in which a noun takes no article.

Definite Article

The (before a singular or plural noun)

Indefinite Article

  • A (before a singular noun beginning with a consonant sound)
  • An (before a singular noun beginning with a vowel sound)

Exercise on Articles

1. He went to … university for high higher education. (A/an/the)

2. Ramesh goes to gym in … mornings. (A/an/the)

3. … camel is the ship of … desert. (A/an/the)

4. Arvind Adiga won … Booker prize for his book … White Tiger. (A/an/the)

5. Harish Chandra was … honest king. (A/an/the)

6. Gold is … precious metal. (A/an/the)

7. … Ganga is … holy river of India. (A/an/the)

8. Is your mother working in … old office building? (A/an/the)

Answer: a, the, the-the, the-the, an, a, the-a, an,

Exercise on Articles

Scientists use (a) … variety of methods to study (b) … behaviour of tigers and track their movements. Radio-tracking was first used to track tigers in Nepal in 1973. In this method, (c) … collar with an attached radio transmitter is placed around the neck of (d) … tiger. Scientists monitor (e) … radio transmissions as (f) … tiger travels, tracking its whereabouts to learn about its range, life history, and behaviour.

Answer: (a) a, (b) the, (c) a, (d) a, (e) the, (f) the

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