NIOS Class 10 English Chapter 15 My Vision for India, Summary (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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(An extract from the speech delivered by our former President, Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam)

Summary

  • Our country has been invaded and controlled by many different rulers during our 3000-year-old history.
  • You must have heard about the British rule in India. But you would have never heard of India attacking another nation or conquering it.
  • This is because we fought very hard to win our own freedom and so we respect others՚ freedom.
  • Now that we have our freedom, we must value it. Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam says that by protecting our freedom we can get the respect of other nations.
  • Dr. Kalam eludes being in the top five positions of the world. According to Dr Kalam, although our nation has been developing continuously and we are recognized globally, we unfortunately are not confident about ourselves.
  • We need to believe in our own ability to become a developed nation. People constantly complain about the government and its functioning.
  • Dr. Kalam says that we need to stop complaining, and be responsible citizens and work towards creating a better India for ourselves and our future generations.

Vocabulary

  • vision: a dream, a goal
  • invaded: attacked,
  • grabbed: took hold of
  • enforce: put in force
  • nurture: take care of
  • lack: not have
  • self-reliant: independent
  • self-assured: confident
  • proclaim: declare
  • inefficient: incompetent
  • garbage: rubbish

Grammar

Modals

Modals are forms of verbs which express different functions such as:

  • Ability, possibility, etc. are expressed by using ‘can’ , ‘could’ .
  • Permission is expressed by using words like ‘could’ , ‘may’ , etc.
  • Making predictions and stating intentions can be expressed by using ‘will’ , ‘would’ .
  • Obligation and duty are expressed by using ‘must’ , ‘need’ , etc.
  • ‘Would’ and ‘could’ are also used to make a polite speech.

Exercise on Modals

1. You … get up early tomorrow.

2. You … call a baby sitter since I am here.

3. We … watch the film tonight.

4. He … not see me yesterday.

5. She … stay at school yesterday afternoon.

6. The light of his room is on. He … not sleep now.

7. You … not answer his question.

Answer: must, need not, may, could, had to, must, need,

Exercise on Modals

1. There are plenty of tomatoes in the fridge. You … buy any.

2. It՚s a hospital. You … not smoke.

3. He had been working for more than 11 hours. He … be tired after such hard work. He may prefer to get some rest.

4. I … speak Arabic fluently when I was a child and we lived in Morocco. But after we moved back to Canada, I had very little exposure to the language and forgot almost everything I knew.

5. The teacher said we can read this book for our own pleasure as it is optional. But we … read it if we don՚t want to.

6. … you stand on your head for more than a minute? No, I can՚t.

7. If you want to learn to speak English fluently, you … to work hard.

8. Take an umbrella. It … rain later.

9. You … leave small objects lying around. Such objects may be swallowed by children.

10. People … walk on grass.

Answer: needn՚t, must, must, could, needn՚t, Can, need, might, shouldn՚t, mustn՚t

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