NIOS Class 10 English Chapter 20 New Good Things from Rubbish (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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  • Recycling rubbish not only helps save money-it also helps the environment. We lessen the pollution that is created by burning rubbish and we save valuable resources.
  • Western countries waste a great deal of the earth՚s resources. For example, in the USA about 75,000 trees are felled every week just for printing the Sunday edition of the New York Times.
  • Recycling used paper would easily save these trees. Many countries encourage recycling and new technology allows more waste to be reused.
  • Most of the world՚s rubbish can be reused-paper, metals, glass, and even some plastics. Plastic is one of the most difficult substances to recycle, because it comes in so many varieties.
  • Plastic scrap can only be turned into a product of lower quality - a plastic might be cleaned, cut into very tiny pieces and used to stuff seat cushions, a mixture of plastic waste can be recycled into plastic ‘timber’ and used to make durable fencing.
  • Metals are different. Any car on the road today will consist, in part, of earlier cars that have been scrapped and recycled into new steel and other metals.
  • The more valuable the metal, like gold and silver, the more it pays to recycle it. Aluminium is worth recycling because extracting it from Bauxite consumes a huge amount of electricity. Since most Aluminium today is recycled, the energy used to make Aluminium has fallen by a quarter since the early 1970s.
  • Glass is also worth recovering. The most sensible method is to use glass bottles as often as possible. In countries which still use milk bottles, the average bottle makes about 30 trips to and from the dairy.
  • Broken glass known as ‘cullet’ can also be recycled, and many western countries have bottle banks into which used bottles can be thrown. Usually there are payments. Bottle banks depend on people՚s goodwill.
  • Many countries import waste paper rather than new pulp for their paper mills. The waste is pulped, cleaned and bleached to remove most of the ink and dirt, before it is turned into new paper in the same way as wood pulp or rags, Japan now makes half its paper by recycling. It is true that in India we generally avoid waste.
  • However, as we enter the twenty-first century, we are beginning to imitate some of the wasteful habits of the western countries. This is something that all of us need to think about.


Linking words/connectors or conjunctions:

These are all words that are used for connecting two words, phrases and sentences, they are called linking words, e. g. , ‘and’ , ‘but’ , or, ‘because’ , etc.

Linking words/conjunctions fall into two categories.

  • Co-ordinating conjunctions appear in the middle of a sentence, two words or independent clauses.
  • Some other coordinating conjunctions are yet, but still, even, as well as, etc.
  • Co-ordinating conjunctions are those that connect two sentences or clauses of unequal rank, e. g. , though she is poor, she is happy.
  • Conjunctions that join two words, phrases or independent clauses. These conjunctions are called coordinating conjunctions.
  • Coordinating conjunctions appear in the middle of a sentence, without a comma for the same subject, and with a comma for different subjects, as seen in the examples given below:
    • She sang and danced.
    • She sang, and he danced

Fill in the blanks with appropriate conjunctions from the brackets.

(1) Make hay ________ the sun shines. (when, while)

(2) She must sleep ________ she will fall sick. (or, and)

(3) You reap ________ you sow (as, so)

(4) The sky is neither cloudy ________ bright. (or, nor)

(5) She is poor ________ happy (but, though)

Answer: while, or, so, nor, though.

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