NIOS Class 10 English Chapter 22 the Truth, Explanation, Grammar (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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(Poem) –

Written by: Barrie Wade

Explanation

  • The title, ‘The Truth’ , suggests that truth is the greatest virtue. Being truthful is very important. But truth generally is bitter.
  • Therefore, if one has to speak the bitter truth it should not be spoken in harsh and unpalatable words, for harsh and bitter words can deeply hurt the listener.
  • They leave a long-lasting impact. The pain caused by unpleasant words is much more unbearable and lasting than a physical injury.
  • The poet suggests that one should speak the truth but in a mild and polite language. Harsh and impolite language causes more hurt than physical injury Truth, if stated in harsh words, becomes counterproductive, i.e.. , the purpose of stating something truthful is defeated.
  • Physical injury caused by a stick or sword gets healed with the passage of time but mental and emotional hurt caused by bitter words leaves an everlasting impact.
  • One should mind one՚s language.

Vocabulary

(1) Haunt: come to the mind continually to create a disturbing effect.

(2) Mortify: to make someone feel extremely embarrassed or ashamed.

(3) Scar: permanent mark on body due to a wound.

(4) Bruise: discoloration of the skin due to an injury.

Grammar

The Figures of Speech/Literary Devices

  • Metaphor: It compares two things that are not very similar but they have a single quality or feature that they both shares, e. g. , word swords.
  • Alliteration: It is the repetition of the initial sound in words, e. g. , ‘Sticks and stones break my bones, bats and bricks’ .
  • Internal rhyme: There are words in the same line which rhyme with each other, e. g. , sticks and stones may break my bones.

Active & Passive

Future Tense (Indefinite)

Future Tense (Indefinite)
ActivePassive
Subject (I, We) + shall + verb 1st form + Object.

Subject (other) + will + verb 1st form + Object.

Subject (I, we) + Shall be + Verb 3rd form + by + object.

Subject (other) + will be + Verb 3rd form + by + object.

Exercise

Change the following sentences into passive:

1. I shall play hockey in the next match.

2. We shall keep a cat as our new pet.

3. They will drink coffee instead of tea.

4. Ram and Sohan will write an eassy.

5. Vikram will give some money to his sister.

Answer:

1. Hockey will be played by me in the next match.

2. A cat will be kept by us as our new pet.

3. Coffee will be drunk by them instead of tea.

4. An eassy will be written by Ram and Sohan.

5. Some money will be given by Vikram to his sister.

Future Perfect

Future Perfect
ActivePassive
I/we + shall have + Verb 3rd + Object.

Others + will have + verb 3rd form + Object.

I/we + shall have been + verb 3rd form + by + Object.

Others + will have been + verb 3rd from + by + object.

Exercise

Change the following sentences into passive:

1. I shall have done this work in time.

2. Teacher will have taught this lesson by Monday.

3. The police officer will have caught the thief.

4. Ram will have punished me.

5. They will have not taken this bus to Manali.

Answer:

1. This work will have been done by me in time.

2. This lesson will have been taught by teacher by Monday.

3. The will have been caught by the police officer.

4. I shall have been punished by Ram.

5. This bus will have not been taken by them to Manali.

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