NIOS Class 10 English Chapter 4 Tall Trees, Explanation, Grammar (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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With their feet in the earth

And their heads in the sky

The tall trees watch

The clouds go by

When the dusk sends quickly

The birds to rest

The tall trees shelter them

Safe in a nest

And then in the night

With the tall trees peeping,

The moon shines down

On a world that՚s sleeping

– Eileen Mathias

Explanation

Stanza 1: With their feet … clouds go by.

  • The poet conveys to the reader that the trees are very tall and describes the trees as if they are human beings with heads and feet, and even eyes to see things around them.
  • She feels that some human beings are like the tall trees that are strong, tall and powerful. Like the tall trees that have their feet in the ground, these empowered human beings are humble, kind and caring.

Stanza 2: When the dusk … in a nest.

The poet gives an integrated picture of Nature in this stanza. In the evening the darkening sky drives the birds to the safety of their homes in the trees. In this way the different elements in Nature complement each other to provide comfort and shelter to the birds.

Stanza 3: And then … world that՚s sleeping

The evening changes into the night and by the light of the moon, the trees stay awake to keep a watch over the world as it sleeps. The poet sees the tall trees as our protectors and guardians, in whose care we can sleep safely and soundly without any worries.

Grammar

Figures of Speech

Personification: When we speak of a thing as if it is a living being it is called ‘personification’ of that object. For example, when we say ‘walls have ears’ we speak of walls as if they were living beings with ears. When we say ‘fortune smiles on those who work hard’ we give a human form and a smile to good luck.

Think of some commonly used personifications associated with the words given below. The first one is done for you as an example.

1. Books are our best friends

2. Love ________

3. Opportunity________

4. Earth ________

5. Time ________

Answer:

1. Love is blind

2. Opportunity knocks only once

3. Earth is our Mother

4. Time waits for none

Future Tense

Future Tense Chart

Future Tense Chart
FUTUREAffirmative sentenceNegative sentenceInterrogative sentenceInterrogative and negative sentence
IndefiniteI, WE AS SUBJECT

Sub + shall + verb 1st form + object.

OTHER AS SUBJECT

Sub + will + verb 1st form + object.

I, WE AS SUBJECT

Sub + shall + not + verb 1st form + object.

OTHER AS SUBJECT

Sub + will + not + verb 1st form + object.

I, WE AS SUBJECT

Shall + Sub + verb 1st form + object?

OTHER AS SUBJECT

Will + Sub + verb 1st form + object?

I, WE AS SUBJECT

Shall + Sub + not + verb 1st form + object?

OTHER AS SUBJECT

Will + Sub + not + verb 1st form + object?

ContinuousI, WE AS SUBJECT

Sub + shall + be + verb 1st form + ing + object.

OTHER AS SUBJECT

Sub + will + be + verb 1st form + ing + object.

I, WE AS SUBJECT

Sub + shall + not + be + verb 1st form + ing + object.

OTHER AS SUBJECT

Sub + will + not + be + verb 1st form + ing + object.

I, WE AS SUBJECT

Shall + Sub + be + verb 1st form + ing + object?

OTHER AS SUBJECT

Will + Sub + be + verb 1st form + ing + object?

I, WE AS SUBJECT

Shall + Sub + not + be + verb 1st form + ing + object?

OTHER AS SUBJECT

Will + Sub + not + be + verb 1st form + ing + object?

PerfectI, WE AS SUBJECT

Sub + shall + have + Verb 3rd form + object.

OTHER AS SUBJECT

Sub + will + have + verb 3st form + object.

I, WE AS SUBJECT

Sub + shall + have + not + Verb 3rd form + object.

OTHER AS SUBJECT

Sub + will + have + not + verb 3st form + object.

I, WE AS SUBJECT

Shall + Sub + have + Verb 3rd form + object?

OTHER AS SUBJECT

Will + Sub + have + verb 3st form + object?

I, WE AS SUBJECT

Shall + Sub + have + not + Verb 3rd form + object?

OTHER AS SUBJECT

Will + Sub + have + not + verb 3st form + object?

Perfect continuousI, WE AS SUBJECT

Sub + shall have + been + Verb 1st + ing + Object + since/for + Time.

OTHER AS SUBJECT

Sub + will have + been + Verb 1st + ing + Object + since/for + Time.

I, WE AS SUBJECT

Sub + shall have + not + been + Verb 1st + ing + Object + since/for + Time.

OTHER AS SUBJECT

Sub + will have + not + been + Verb 1st + ing + Object + since/for + Time.

I, WE AS SUBJECT

Shall + sub + have + been + Verb 1st + ing + Object + since/for + Time?

OTHER AS SUBJECT

Will + Sub + have + been + Verb 1st + ing + Object + since/for + Time?

I, WE AS SUBJECT

Shall + sub + have + not + been + Verb 1st + ing + Object + since/for + Time?

OTHER AS SUBJECT

Will + Sub + have + not + been + Verb 1st + ing + Object + since/for + Time

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