NIOS Class 10 English Chapter 8 a Birthday Letter, Summary (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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(Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru wrote this letter to his daughter, Indira on her 13th birthday from Naini Prison)


  • In 1930, India was not free. Many of our leaders were imprisoned by the British. While in Naini Prison, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru wrote this letter to his daughter, Indira on her 13th birthday.
  • In the letter Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru wrote that he doesn՚t believe in sermonizing and doling out good advice but thought that the best way to find out what is right and what is not right, what should be done and what should not be done, is not by giving a sermon, but by talking and discussing, and out of discussion sometimes a little bit of truth comes out.
  • He also wrote that the world is wide and beyond our world lays other wonderful and mysterious worlds none of us need ever be bored or imagine that we have learned everything worth learning and become very wise.
  • In history we read of great periods in the life of nations, of great men and women if you remember how fascinated you were when you first read the story of Jeanne d՚Arc, and how your ambition was to be something like her.
  • In the letter Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru wrote that Ordinary men and women are not usually heroic.
  • They think of their bread and butter, of their children, of their household worries and the like. But a time comes when a whole people become interested in a great cause.
  • In India a great leader, full of love for all who suffer and eager to help them, has inspired our people to great actions and noble sacrifice. He has helped to make the starving, the poor and the oppressed free and happy.
  • Bapuji is in prison, but the magic of his message has stolen the hearts of India՚s millions. Men and women, and even little children, come out of their little shells and become India՚s soldiers of freedom.


1. Constructing ‘Wh’ Questions:

There are nine ‘Wh’ question words.

There Are Nine Wh Question Words
When, what, where, why, who, whom, whose, which, how


1. Abhimanyu: ________are you going Vivek?

2. Vivek: I am going to the doctor.

3. Anirudh: ________ are you going to see a doctor?

4. Vivek: I՚ve got a terrible stomach ache.

5. Abhimanyu: ________ doctor will you go to, Dr. Solanki or Dr. Gupta?

6. Anirudh: You should go to Dr. Solanki.

7. Abhimanyu: But ________ are his timings to see the patients and ________ will you go there Vivek?

8. Vivek: I don՚t know the timings. I will call up and check. I think I will take a cab.

Answer: Where, Why, Which, what, how


An interrogative word or question-word is a function-word used to ask a question, such as what, which, when, where, who, whom, whose, why, whether and how. They are sometimes called wh-words, because in English most of them start with wh-. They may be used in both direct questions and in indirect questions.

2. Look at the sentences given below. Rewrite the sentences beginning with a verb to make them imperative sentences.

1. One should never hide the truth.

2. You shouldn՚t stay out late.

3. One should not play with fire.

4. You should keep your classroom clean.

5. You should not go barefoot outside.

6. One shouldn՚t eat spicy food.

7. One should go to school regularly.

8. You should read good storybooks.


1. Never hide the truth.

2. Don՚t stay out late.

3. Don՚t play with fire.

4. Keep your classroom clean.

5. Never walk barefoot.

6. Don՚t eat spicy food.

7. Go to school regularly.

8. Read good storybooks.

Letter Writing

Letter writing is classified into two categories:

  • Formal Letter
  • Informal Letter

Informal Letter

  • Informal letters are also known as personal letters. Such letters are usually written to relatives, family, friends, or acquaintances.
  • These letters may or may not have a concrete reason for writing. The aim of writing informal letters is to create a personal memoir.
  • Informal letters need to follow the below-mentioned format.
    • Address
    • Date
    • Salutation
    • Body of the letter
    • Sender՚s name and signature

Formal Letters

  • The letters that follow a certain formality and set pattern are formal letters. Such letters are precise, directly addressing the concerned issue and are kept strictly professional in nature.
  • Formal letters are short and to the point. A variety of letters that fall within the category of formal letters are – Business letters, Official letters, and Employment letters.
  • A formal letter must adhere to the prescribed format. The letter writing format of a formal letter is as mentioned below:
    • Sender՚s address
    • Date
    • Receiver՚s address
    • Subject
    • Salutation
    • Body of the letter
    • Complimentary closure
    • Signature line: sender՚s name, signature and designation


Write a letter to your uncle thanks him for the present he sent you on your recent birthday.

Write a Letter to Your Uncle Thanks Him for the Present He Sent You on Your Recent Birthday
Pink House} Address

House no 200 ⁄ 5} Address

Rose Street Agra} Address

17th February 2021} date

My Dear Uncle} salutation

I am very glad to write you in response of your wonderful present on my birthday. It is a beautiful golden wrist watch. It was the most amazing of all presents I received on my birthday. All praised its prettiness. It will be very useful for me. It will also help me to get school in time. I am very grateful to you for this present. Give my wishes to auntie.

With best wishes.

Your loving nephew} sender՚s name and signature

Rohit} sender՚s name and signature

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