Introduction of Hindustani Music: Sangeet and Systems of Music (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Hindustani Music

Hindustani traditional music has fundamentally been vocal driven. This is suggested By the term ‘Sangeet’ itself that is utilized for music, which truly implies ‘singing in a right manner’ . The vast majority of the structures were initially appropriate for vocal execution and instruments were intended to copy the human voice. Singing, instrumental music and moving together established music or ‘Sangeet’ .


The term ‘Sangeet’ is shaped by the blend of two words ‘sam + geet.’ Sam ‘implies total in all regard or legitimate while’ geet ‘signifies to sing. By joining the two it intends to sing in a legitimate way. That is, singing in a legitimate way adhering to set standards is Sangeet or music. Anyway, it doesn՚t include just singing. It incorporates instrumental music and moves also. The accompanying words from the extraordinary expert on music, Pt. Sharngadev underwrites this announcement, consequently’ geetam vadyam tatha nrittam trayam sangeetamuchyate.

Systems of Music

By and by, two frameworks of music are pervasive:

  • Northern of Hindustani Sangeet
  • Southern of Karnataka Sangeet

Northern of Hindustani Music System

Except for four southern states, this framework is prevalent in the remainder of India. It is likewise pervasive in neighbouring nations like Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan.

Southern of Karnataka Music System

This framework is predominant in the southern states-Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh also, Tamil Nadu.

In spite of the fact that these two frameworks of music are autonomous of one another, they have numerous likenesses, in this way

  • The two frameworks follow the idea of twenty-two Shrutis in a Saptak.
  • The two frameworks have twelve notes in a Saptak.
  • The two frameworks follow the idea of Thata Raga.
  • In the two frameworks, music depends on Raga and Tala.


Nothing is that pleasant sound that is gotten from a physical article (mouth or some other material) and arrives at the ears thanks to physical issues (strong, fluid or gas) . This procedure is accomplished by vibrations or motions in the object. At the point when these motions are of a customary sort, at that point the sound is resonant and helpful for music, this sound is called Nada. At the point when the motions are unpredictable, at that point the sound isn՚t sweet which isn՚t valuable for music.

Definition of Nada

The word ‘Nada’ is a mix of the two syllables ‘Na’ and ‘Da’ . Phonetically ‘Na’ demonstrates life breath and ‘Da’ shows fire. Therefore, being acquired from the mix of life breath and fire, it is called Nada. There are two sorts of Nada-Ahat Nada and Anahat Nada. Ahat Nada is created by striking together of two items while, Anahat Nada is experienced through information with no outside factor. Ahat Nada is identified with music, Anahat Nada isn՚t identified with music.

Ahat Nada

There are three fundamental attributes of this Nada:-

  • Pitch
  • Intensity or Magnitude
  • Timbre
  • Pitch-Pitch implies whether the Nada is high or low. The pitch of the sound Delivering objects relies on the recurrence (number of vibrations) . The Higher the recurrence, higher is the pitch of the Nada and lower the recurrence, Lower is the pitch of the Nada. For instance, the recurrence of ‘Sa’ is 240, ‘Re’ is 270. Hence the recurrence of ‘Re’ being higher than that of ‘Sa’ and Recurrence of ‘Sa’ being lower than that of ‘Re’ , the pitch of ‘Sa’ is lower than That of ‘Re.’
  • A Nada with recurrence 60 to 4000 is workable for use in music Power or Magnitude-Intensity or Magnitude mean whether a Nada is stronger or on the other hand feeble and of more prominent or littler sufficiency. This trademark is resolved by the power used to get the Nada. At the point when a string or surface of the Tabla is struck delicately, the Nada would be heard over a littler separation. Be that as it may, if these are hit with more prominent power or a stronger sound is created from the throat, at that point the Nada would be heard over a more prominent separation. This is the power of Nada.
  • Tone – There are various mediums to create Nada. The distinctive apparent quality delivered through various mediums is known as the tone of a Nada. Through the tone of Nada, it very well may be ascertained that a given Nada is gotten from a specific instrument of a person. It is this distinction of medium that gives the quality or tone of Nada.

Anahat Nada

This Nada is connected distinctly to the human body and not to any outside items or instruments. It is the ubiquitous Nada that turns into a way to encounter God. That is the reason it is called Brahmarupa. After incredible compensation, sages can encounter it and increase its information. It isn՚t valuable for music.

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