Introduction of Hindustani Music: Number of Shrutis and Svaras (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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  • Shruti is the littlest type of Nada. The subsidiary meaning of this word has been given in ‘Sangeet Ratnakar’ as ‘shravanacchrutayo matah’ - 1/3/8
  • That which can be heard is Shruti. In music, Shruti structures the reason for melodic notes or Svaras and through which production of Ragas happens.

Number of Shrutis

Distinctive perspectives in regard to the quantity of Shrutis are common among musicologists. Among these three are fundamental. As indicated by one perspective, there are twenty-two Shrutis in a Saptak, as indicated by the second there are sixty-six and endless as indicated by the third perspective. The primary perspective as indicated by which there are twenty-two Shrutis is the most pervasive.


Svara has been characterized as that smooth, full solid which is equipped for satisfying the psyches of the audience members all alone.

Number of Svaras

  • At the outset during the Vedic time frame, just three notes were being used, to be specific, Udatta, Anudatta and Svarita. Udatta downgraded high pitch, Anudatta lower pitch what՚s more, Svarita medium pitch. Gradually the Vedic notes formed into four, at that point five what՚s more, later seven notes. The Laukik or present day seven notes first discover notice in Bharata՚s Natyashastra.
  • These were named as Shadja, Rishabh, Gandhar, Madhyam, Pancham, Dhaivat and Nishad. Their curtailed structure utilized by and by are ‘Sa’ , ‘Re’ , ‘Ga’ , ‘Mama’ , ‘Dad’ , ‘Dha’ and ‘Ni’ separately. These Svaras were set up on the twenty-two Shrutis of the Saptak dependent on the rule:

′ chatushchatushchatushchaiva

Shadja madhyamapanchamah

Dwedwe Nishadgandhar Tistririshabh Dharatau

  • ‘Sa’ , ‘Mama’ , ‘Dad’ have four Shrutis every, ‘Re’ , ‘Dha’ have three Shrutis each and ‘Ni’ , ‘Ga’ , have two Shrutis each. The arrangement can be appeared through the accompanying table.
  • These were the unadulterated notes. Aside from these, Bharat has given two adjusted (Sadharana) notes-Antar Gandhar and Kakali Nishad. As indicated by present day musicologists, other than the seven unadulterated notes, there are five adjusted notes. The unadulterated (Shuddha) and adjusted (Vikrit) Svaras are clarified to sum things up underneath.

Shuddha Svara

When Svaras are set on their predetermined Shrutis, they are known as Shuddha Svaras. The seven Shuddha Svaras in their characteristic state are ‘Sa’ , ‘Re’ , ‘Ga’ , ‘Mama’ , ‘Dad’ , ‘Dha’ , ‘Ni’ , among these seven Shuddha Svaras, ‘Sa’ and ‘Dad’ are Fixed or ‘Achal’ and stay in their unadulterated state.

Vikrit Svara

The notes other than ‘Sa’ and ‘Dad’ can get dislodged from their characteristic state and become adjusted or Vikrit, in this way they are alluded to as ‘Chal’ . The changed or then again Vikrit state is either ‘Komal’ or ‘Tivra’ ‘Re’ , ‘Ga’ , ‘Mama’ , ‘Dha’ , ‘Ni’ are notes of this class. Among these, ‘Re’ , ‘Ga’ , ‘Dha’ and ‘Ni’ become Komal by getting dislodged to bring down Shrutis and ‘Mama’ becomes Tivra by getting uprooted to higher Shrutis. As per Bhatkhande՚s Notation System, Komal Svara can be perceived by an even line underneath the Svara and Tivra Svara can be perceived by a vertical line over the Svara. For instance, Komal ‘Ga’ is written as ‘Ga’ and Tivra ‘Mama’ is composed as ‘Mama’ .


Types of Saptak

In music, after Nada, Shruti and Svara comes Saptak in the development request. Truly, ‘Saptak’ signifies a gathering of seven, i.e.. , ‘Saptak saptanam samuhah.’ In the setting of music, its significance has been inferred as a gathering of seven notes in grouping. As per the high or low pitch of sound, there can be a vast number of Saptak, notwithstanding, three sorts of Saptak are utilized in music. These are moreover called registers or ‘Sthan’ . A concise portrayal of the three Saptak is given beneath:-

Mandra Saptak

Mandra implies low. At the point when the sound utilized in a Saptak is twice as low as the ordinary sound, it is called ‘Mandra’ Saptak. When Svaras are articulated while singing in this Saptak, there is pressure on the heart. As per Bhatkhande Documentation System, a spot is utilized underneath the Svara, for example Sa, Re, Ga Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni.

Madhya Saptak

Madhya implies medium or ordinary Mostly performing is done in this Saptak in which the sound is twice as high as the sound of Mandra Saptak when Svaras are articulated while singing in this Saptak, there is pressure on the throat. There is no image utilized for documentation of Svaras in Madhya Saptak, for example Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni.

Tar Saptak

To sing higher than the Madhya or typical Saptak, Svaras of Tara Saptak are utilized. The sound for Svaras of this Saptak is twice higher than that for Svaras of Madhya Saptak. To articulate the Svaras of the Saptak while singing, there is pressure on sense of taste and mind. As per Bhatkhande՚s Notation framework, a spot is utilized over the notes, for example Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni. Normally, these three Saptak are utilized for singing and instrumental music. Alongside seven unadulterated notes, the five changed notes are additionally remembered for Saptak.

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