Pioneers of Hindustani Music: Pt. Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande (1860 − 1936 a. D) (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Introduction

  • Cutting edge Hindustani music in its current structure owes its reality principally because of the spearheading work of two extraordinary names in the field of music, the two Vishnu՚s – Pt. Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande and Pt. Vishnu Digambar Paluskar. Both contributed essentially towards the setting up of legitimate organizations for the development and creation of music and assumed a significant job in promoting music among the majority. Together they were answerable for restoring the hypothetical part of Hindustani music and its co-appointment with common sense music.
  • Significant commitments of Pt. Bhatkhande incorporate order of Ragas into Thatas, translation of time hypothesis, documentation framework, altering and distributing of Sanskrit works identifying with music, foundation of music establishments and composing of a few books and articles. Pt. Paluskar՚s commitments incorporate redevelopment of pieces to remember the component of bhakti and dedication for the spot of defamatory words, building up of music foundations, documentation framework and composing of a few books and articles on music. Because of the consistent endeavors of the two transcending characters of the Hindustani music world, different arrangements and old Sanskrit messages identified with music could be distributed, else they could have been lost at the appointed time of times.

Pt. Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande (1860 - 1936 a. D)

Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande

Conceived on August 10,1860 A. D, Pt. Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande was prepared as a legal advisor. Be that as it may, his genuine calling was music. Considered as the planner of present-day Hindustani music, he took different activities to guarantee the development and advancement of music. His commitments were of such huge extents, that they were sufficient to begin a renaissance of Hindustani music.

Contributions of Pt. Bhatkhande

Some major contributions of Pt. Bhatkhande are as follows:

Classification of Ragas into Thatas

One of the most significant commitments of Pt. Bhatkhande in the field of Hindustani music was the characterization of Ragas into ten Thatas.

The names of 10 that is are as follows:

1. Khamaj

2. Bhairav

3. Purvi

4. Marwa

5. Kafi

6. Asavari

7. Bhairavi

8. Todi

9. Yaman

10. Bilawal

Interpretation of Time Theory of Ragas

Another noteworthy commitment of Pt. Bhatkhande is his translation of the conventional time hypothesis of Ragas. He revealed an exceptionally orderly technique to allocate explicit timeframes to Ragas dependent on the kind of notes. Through his brilliant strategy, a generally entangled time hypothesis of Ragas turned out to be more extensive and more straightforward to grasp.

Bhatkhande Notation System

He conceived an arrangement of documentation to help learning and tracking melodic organizations. During Bhatkhande՚s time, music was instructed as an oral custom. Structures were not effectively available. Performers regarded arrangements as their own property and were reluctant to leave behind them. Pt. Bhatkhande arranged around 1,200 pieces in six pieces of the Kramik Pustak Malika arrangement. Initially in Marathi, the arrangement contains a fortune of ‘Gharanedar’ structures just as the depiction of Ragas with note elaboration in the Bhatkhande arrangement of documentation.

Editing and Publication of Rare Sanskrit Works Relating to Music

Pt. Bhatkhande was answerable for the altering and distribution of different old also, uncommon Sanskrit works identifying with music, which may somehow, or another have been decimated or lost with the progression of time.

Establishment of Music Institutions

He understood the need to systematize preparing in Hindustani music and built up the Madhava Sangit Vidyalaya (1918 A. D) in Gwalior and Marris College of Music (1923 A. D) in Lucknow.

Books and Articles

He composed a few books and articles covering different parts of Hindustani music during his lifetime. Some of them are given beneath:

1. Abhinav Raga Manjari - Sanskrit

2. Srimallaksya Sangitam - Sanskrit

3. Abhinav Tala Manjari - Sanskrit

4. Hindustani Sangit Paddhati (in four parts) - Marathi (Translation in Hindi as Bhatkhande Sangit Shastra)

5. Kramik Pustak Malika (in six parts) - Marathi (Translation in Hindi)

6. Svara Malika - Book of notations using Gujarati characters

7. Geet Malika - Journal consisting of musical compositions

8. A comparative study of music systems of the 15th , 16th , 17th and 18th centuries (English and Hindi)

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