Study of Forms Dhrupad and Dhamar: Introduction and Definition (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Introduction

Dhrupad and Dhamar

Dhrupad and Dhamar are the most seasoned types of Hindustani traditional music Which are still stylish. It is accepted that these structures have their underlying foundations in the antiquated compositional structure ‘Prabandha’ . In these structures, there is extraordinary accentuation on the immaculateness of Raga. Sung to the backup of Pakhawaj, the Dhrupad structure is set to Talas, for example, Chau Tala, Sool Tala, Brahma Tala and so on. , though the Dhamar structure is set to Dhamar Tala. The topic of Dhrupad normally comprises gestures of recognition of divinities and disparaging lords, while that of Dhamar portrays Holi. Both these structures thrived around the sixteenth century, which was known as the brilliant age of these structures.

Definition

Dhrupad

The word ‘Dhrupad’ or ‘Dhruvapada’ has its root in two Sanskrit words ‘Dhruva’ furthermore, ‘Pada’ signifying ‘fixed’ and ‘scholarly substance’ individually. Consequently, Dhrupad might be characterized as a structure that has abstract stanzas which are fixed (made) to certain Svaras and Tala. The synthesis of Dhrupad is commonly identified with the valiance, notoriety of the recognition of Gods, Goddesses, Kings as rulers and furthermore melodic components like Tala and Nada and so on. This structure is sung to the backup of Pakhawaj. The ‘Talas’ utilized in Dhrupad are - ChauTala, Sool, Teevra, Brahma Tala, and so on.

Dhamar

Dhamar is additionally a compositional structure like Dhrupad which is sung to the backup of Pakhawaj. Dhamar is constantly set to ‘Dhamar’ Tala of fourteen beats. The arrangements of Dhamar are for the most part identified with ‘Holi’ and Leela of Radha-Krishna yet as this structure was grown more in Medieval period, the structures likewise needed to substance identified with the acclaim and notoriety of Kings and rulers.

History and Evolution

  • It is accepted that Dhrupad advanced from Dhruva Prabandhas. Dhrupad in its present structure has been stylish since the fifteenth/sixteenth century and is as yet rehearsed. Its old structure had Svara, Laya and Pada (tune, mood and abstract substance) , every one of the three segments of equivalent significance. Since the abstract part or the refrains were totally made and fixed to Svara and Tala, consequently this structure was called Dhruvapada. Afterward, Dhruvapada experienced certain progressions and turned out to be better known as a conspicuous type of traditional music that was alluded to as ‘Dhrupad’ .
  • In the sixteenth century, Raja Mansingh Tomar of Gwalior disparaged this structure. In his composition ‘Mankutuhal’ , he has uniquely talked about Dhrupad. As indicated by him, the writing of Dhrupad was written in ‘Desi’ or nearby language of focal India, i.e.. , Braja Bhasha. Dhrupads are likewise accessible in Sanskrit or Hindi. The writing of Dhrupad contains gestures of recognition of gods and disparaging lords, though, the writing of Dhamar contains portrayals of Holi-the celebration of hues.
  • The creation is partitioned into four sections i.e.. , Sthayi, Antara, Sanchari and Abhog; be that as it may, a few structures are additionally found containing just two sections - Sthayi and Antara. Aside from Raja Mansingh Tomar, Emperor Akbar additionally gave incredible support to Dhrupad. Mian Tansen, Nayak Gopal, Nayak Bakshu were a few of the incomparable Dhrupad artists of the sixteenth century. This period is known as the brilliant time of Dhrupad, when Dhrupad singing thrived in various parts of North India.

There were four ‘Banis’ or styles of singing Dhrupad, they are named as:

  • Govarhar
  • Khandar
  • Dagar
  • Nauhar

It is accepted that Mian Tansen of Gwalior started Govarhar Bani, Brijchand hailing from Dagar (a spot close to Delhi) started Dagar Bani, Raja Samokhan Singh of Khandar started Khandar Bani and Srichand of Nauhar started Nauhar Bani.

Characteristics of Singing Dhrupad and Dhamar

  • Dhrupad and Dhamar, both have an unmistakable style of interpretation. Before all else, The Raga is executed with the assistance of mental helper syllables viz, Nom, Tom, Dere, Na and so forth. This part of singing is known as ‘Alap’ and is with no musical Backup. The Alap comes full circle into quick musical singing of the memory aides In the ‘Jod’ example of instrumental music. This is trailed by the structure.
  • The piece is sung with different spontaneous creations taking expressions of the verses, This part is known as ‘upaj’ , which is a novel to Dhrupad singing. The spontaneous creations are finished by multiplying, significantly increasing or quadrupling the real rhythm before coming back to the first beat. Dhamar is likewise delivered along these lines. Tala is a significant part of singing Dhrupad - Dhamar. The musical backup is given by Pakhawaj. Talas generally utilized in Dhrupad singing are ChauTala, Matta, Brahma, Lakshmi, Sool, Teevra and so forth. Dhamar is invariably set to Dhamar Tala of fourteen beats.

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