Notation System of Hindustani Music: The Meaning and Concept of Notation (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Introduction

Indian music depends on creative mind. Performers have made artistic or beautiful pieces and introduced them as Khayal, Dhrupad, Thumri and different types of music in various Ragas and Talas for communicating slants as it were through their specialty. So as to safeguard such introductions in composed structure so that they don՚t get lost alongside the performers, documentations utilizing various images appeared every now and then. It is with the help of documentations just that an assortment of pieces by artists of yesteryear is accessible today moreover. Thus, it is significant for us to increase a point by point information on documentation.

The Meaning and Concept of Notation

In Hindi, documentation is called ‘Svaralipi.’ This is framed by two words ‘Svara’ , which is noted and ‘Lipi’ , which means content or the composed type of any language. Accordingly, Svaralipi is the content of notes. Similarly as in a language, various lines, spots and different kinds of images are utilized for Hindi, Urdu, Tamil and so forth. , comparably in music additionally, the images, lines or numerals used to depict the composed type of unadulterated, changed notes, various registers and different Talas, for example, Teentala, Jhaptala, Ektala and so forth are by and large called documentation. Notes and Talas as well as images from components of music like Kan, Meend, Gamak and so forth are likewise remembered for documentation.

Historical Background of Notation

  • In India, educating in music has consistently been oral as Guru-Shishya convention. In this arrangement of showing music, the multitudinous fine employment of notes and beat must be educated completely by singing or playing orally. It is beyond the realm of imagination to expect to endeavor to record them. Be that as it may, from Vedic period onwards musicologists have endeavored to show the pitch and registers of notes which discover notice in antiquated writing.
  • In Vedic period, three kinds of notes, Udatta, Anudatta and Svarita, have been referenced. Udatta signifies high, Anudatta means low and Svarita indicates medium, that is when there is a juncture of high and low. The images used to show them in composed structure were the opposite line for Udatta (I) , flat line for Anudatta (-) and no image for Svarita. Afterward, these notes of Vedic period appeared through numerals 1,2 and 3 instead of lines. In different compositions of Vedic period, such an utilization is seen in various structures under various frameworks. With the expansion in number of notes to seven, the music compositions demonstrated the utilization of numerals 1, 2, 3, 4,5, 6,7 for these.
  • Along these lines, it is realized that notes appeared in composed structure during the Vedic time frame for the reason for learning and instructing. This can be considered as the starting hotspot for frameworks of documentation that should have been utilized later. Gradually, rather than lines of what՚s more, numerals, words like Shadja, Rishabh, Gandhar and so on or syllables like Sa, Re, Ga, Ma started to be utilized. For instance, Bharat muni has utilized the terms Shadja, Rishabh and so on to show the notes or Svaras in his work ‘Natyashastra’ , though Matang has utilized syllables Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni to show the Svaras in his work ‘Brihaddeshi’ .

As per use, he has demonstrated the Svaras in two structures:

  • Hrasva (short)
  • Deergh (long)

Hrasva - Sa Ri Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni

Deergh - Saa Re Gaa Maa Paa Dhaa Nee

The unit of time was called ′ Kala ′ , which additionally had two structures (1) Laghu (Small) (2) Guru (huge) Laghu Kala was shown by Hrasva and Guru Kala was demonstrated by Deerghakshar. In the ′ Svargatadhyaya ′ of Sharngadev ′ s ′ Sangeet Ratnakar ′ written in the thirteenth century, the seven Svaras have appeared in a way like that of 01 Matang. In any case, Svaras of Mandra and Tara registers or Saptak are appeared with a speck over the Svara (Ga) and standing or opposite line over the Svara (G ′ a) separately. In Jati Prastaras, syllables have likewise been given under the Svaras.

Presently Prevalent Pt. Vishnu Narayan, Bhatkhande Notation System

In Modern time, the documentation framework made by Pt. Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande is the most predominant. Being straightforward and simple to utilize, this documentation framework is utilized in most distributed books and scholastic organizations pt. V. N. Bhatkhande made a documentation framework and utilized it in books distributed by the name ′ Hindustani Sangeet Paddhati, Kramik Pustak Malika (6 sections) . It ends up being exceptionally advantageous for the reason for distribution.

The images utilized in this documentation framework are as per the following:

  • Shuddha Svara - no image just Sa Re Ga …
  • Komal Svara - even line underneath the Svara (Ga)
  • Tivra Svara - Perpendicular line above Madhyam (Ma) .
  • Mandra Saptak - dab underneath Svaras Ma Pa Dha Ni.
  • Madhya Saptak - no image, just Sa Re Ga …
  • Tara Saptak - dab above Svaras Sa Re Ga Ma

Number of (-) images after a Svara shows the quantity of Matras till which the Svara must be kept singing. Svaras inside the image () ought to be sung in a solitary Matra. Image used to show Meend – Pa Re.

The Matras of Talas are appeared by the images given underneath.

  • Sam – ×
  • Khali – 0
  • Bone – 2,3, 4 and so forth shows the quantity of the Tali.

On the off chance that a Svara is organized, for example (Dad) , it implies that first the Svara following the given Svara, at that point the Svara itself, at that point the Svara going before it and afterward again the Svara itself is to be sung. That is, Dha Pa Ma Pa, these four Svaras are to be sung in a single Matra in the given model.

Presently Prevalent

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