Brief Introduction to Sangeet Ratnakar: Enumeration of Chapters (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Introduction

Introduction to Sangeet Ratnakar
  • Sangeet Ratnakar of Pt. Sharngadev is one such composition of Indian old-style music which is perceived as the reason for both the frameworks, Hindustani and Carnatic music. Thanks to this composition, not exclusively was the old structure of Indian old-style music monitored, yet in addition information about old structures, Svaras, Ragas, Gitis, Jati Gana, Tala, instruments, move and so forth was made accessible to present day musicologists. View purposes of specialists going before Sharngadev, for example, Bharat, Matang, Dattil and others have likewise been referenced in Sangeet Ratnakar which makes this a critical composition of Indian music.
  • Written in the thirteenth century, Sangeet Ratnakar is additionally called ′ Saptadhyayi ′ as it comprises seven sections. Every section talks about various parts of music in detail. For instance, in the subsequent part called ′ Ragavivekadhyaya ′ , he talks about the ten times characterization of Ragas and a sum of 264 Ragas referenced as beforehand pervasive and by and by common alongside structures and elaboration. Pt. Sharngadev restored ideas of music and put them forward in a thorough way. Right up ′ till today, meanings of fundamental phrasing are cited from this composition.

Enumeration of Chapters

Pt. Sharngadev composed Sangeet Ratnakar in the thirteenth century. There are seven parts in this Sanskrit composition. Hence, it is additionally alluded to as ‘Saptadhyayi’ .

The seven sections are as per the following:

  • Nartanadhyaya
  • Ragavivekadhyaya
  • Prakeernakadhyaya
  • Vadyadhyaya
  • Taladhyaya
  • Prabandhadhyaya
  • Svargatadhyaya

Description of Svargatadhyaya

  • The main part called Svargatadhyaya has eight segments or Prakaranas. In the first area, after a summon of God, the creator makes reference to the name of the dad as ‘Sodhala’ who had a place with the group of a respected Brahmin of Kashmir. In this composition he has introduced the perspectives of extraordinary experts on music going before him for example, Bharat, Matang, Dattil, just as Yashtik, Durga shakti, Shardula, Kohala, Narada, Nanyadev and so forth in a brief way.
  • Alongside giving the term ‘Sangeet’ all in all to the set of three of singing, instrumental music and move, he gives it two sorts, ‘Marga’ and ‘Desh’ . As indicated by him, that which was found by Brahma and rehearsed by Bharat and others is ‘Marga’ and that which is worked on as per the flavor of individuals of various districts is called ‘Deshi’ Sangeet. Move has been said to follow instrumental music and instrumental music has been said to follow singing. Along these lines, singing has been considered as chief among singing, instrumental music and move. He lists the seven parts alongside a concise notice of their substance.
  • In the second and third segments of the primary section, human physiology, inescapability of Nada, Nada, Shruti, sorts of Svaras, their position, god, sage, meter, Rasa and so forth have been talked about. While examining the starting point of Nada from the ascending of life breath in the body and its summit from the mouth, 22 shrutis have been referenced. From these 22 shrutis, 12 changed (Vikrit) and 7 unadulterated (Shuddha) Svaras are acquired, which gives the complete number of notes of Sharngadev as 19. He too gives their connection to Rasas, meter and hues. In the fourth and fifth areas, he gives an investigation of Grama, Murcchana and Tana՚s in which two Gramas Shadja Grama and Madhyam Grama and Murcchanas and Tana՚s got from them have been clarified in detail. At that point he clarifies the utilization of Svara Sadharana in Jatis. In the 6th , seventh and eight segments he gives subtleties of Varna, Alankara, Jati and Giti.

Description of Ragavivekadhyaya

The ten times arrangement of Ragas has been depicted as ‘Marga’ Ragas-, Grama Raga-, - Up Raga, Raga, Bhasha, Vibhasha, Antar Bhasha and Deshi Ragas – Bhashanga, Upanga, Kriyanga and Raganga. The absolute number of every class of Ragas given in Sangeet Ratnakar is 264. The part comprises two segments. In the primary area, five kinds of Gramma Ragas have been talked about based on five Gitis-Shuddha, Bhinna, Gaudi, Vesara and Sadharani. From there on, he makes reference to the Upa Ragas, Ragas, Bhashas, Vibhashas and Antar Bhashas. In the subsequent area, Deshi Ragas has been portrayed as already pervasive and by and by common (during that time) alongside Ragalap and Akshiptika.

Description of Prakeernakadhyaya

  • The third part is ‘Prakeernakadhyaya’ which comprises ‘Prakeerna’ that is various subjects. It starts with subtleties of Vaggeyakara, the ace author. One who makes the verbal content just as the melodic structure of an arrangement is called ‘Vaggeyakara’ . Attributes of Vaggeyakara incorporate information on syntax, language when all is said in done, Rasa, Bhava, Kala, Laya, Tala, Desi Ragas, Prabandhas and so on. Classes like Uttam, Madhyam and Adham have likewise been offered by gauge writers. This is trailed by the depiction of Gandharva and Svaradi. One who knows Marga and Deshi Sangeet is ‘Gandharva’ , while one who knows just Marga is ‘Svaradi’ .
  • Qualities of an artist as indicated by various classes are given. For instance, ‘Uttam gaayak’ or a decent quality vocalist ought to have a decent apparent quality; he ought to be well aquainted with Ragas, Ragangas, Bhashangas, Kriyangas and Upangas. He ought to know about Prabandhas, Alapti, order over Gamakas in all registers, Tala, Laya and so forth. So also, different classifications, for example, Madhyama, Adhama, Panchvidhgaayak, Trividh gaayak and Gaayani (female vocalist) have been depicted.

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