Chapter – 12 Performing Arts: Music, Dance & Drama: Concept of Performing Arts and Divisions of Indian Classical Music (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Music, dance, drama, folk theatre or puppetry our country India, had all of it in abundance. India is a land of rich culture and heritage. Since the beginning of our civilization, music, dance and drama have been an integral aspect of our culture.

Concept of Performing Arts

  • Art is an expression of all characteristics of the human mind aesthetically. These characteristics, i.e.. the varied human emotions, are known as ‘RAS’ .
  • In Hindi, ‘ras’ literally means a sugary juice. It signifies the ultimate satisfaction of ‘anand’ .
  • Human emotions can be categorized into nine sub-headings or ‘navras’ . They are
Human Emotions
  • Art reflects human emotions and human beings spontaneously their frame of mind through various art forms.
  • Thus the intellectual mind merges with the artistic streak, giving birth to art. The expression is reflected in various styles like singing, dancing, drawing, paintings, acting, Sculpture.
  • Some of these are expressed through live performances and others through visual arts.
  • Music from time immemorial has been the most popular art form of India. They are Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ne
  • The earliest tradition of Indian music may be traced to Sama Veda which contained the slokas that were put to music. Chanting of Vedic hymns with prescribed pitch and accent still from a part of religious rituals.

Divisions of Indian Classical Music

  • During the medieval period Indian classical music was broadly based on two traditions, the Hindustani Classical music prevalent in North India and the Carnatic music of south India.
  • Hindustani classical music may be traced back to the period of the Delhi Sultanate and to Amir Khusrau who encouraged the practice of musical performance with particular instruments.
  • The most popular ragas are: Bahar, Bhairavi, Sindhu Bhairavi, Bhim Palasi, Darbari, Desh, Hamsadhwani, Jai Jayanti, Megha Malhar, Todi Yaman, Pilu, Shyam Kalyan, and Khambaj.
  • Devotional music like kirtan, bhajan, ragas contained in the Adi Granth and singing in the Majlis during Muharram also deserve a special place in Indian music. Along with this folk, music also shows a very rich cultural heritage.