Chapter – 12 Performing Arts: Music, Dance & Drama: Modern Indian Music, Folk Music and Dances of India (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

Get unlimited access to the best preparation resource for CBSE/Class-12 : get questions, notes, tests, video lectures and more- for all subjects of CBSE/Class-12.

The compositions in Carnatic music may be attributed collectively to three composers who lived between AD 1700 and 1850. They were Shyam Shastri, Thyagaraja and Mutthuswami Dikshitar.

  • The main compositions are known as kirti and are devotional in nature. The three great musicians experimented with new forms.
  • Some notable musicians of this period are Maha Vaidhyanath Ayyar, and Ramnad Srinivasa lyengar.
  • Flute, Veena, nadaswaram, mridangam, ghatam are some of the instruments to accompany Carnatic music.

Modern Indian Music

  • With the British rule came Western music. Indians adopted some of their instruments such as violin and clarinet to suit the demands of Indian music.
  • Orchestration of music on stage is a new development. Use of cassettes replaced oral transmission of tunes and ragas.
  • Performance which were earlier limited to a privileged few have now been thrown open to the public and can be viewed by thousands of music lovers throughout the country.
  • Music education no longer depends on the master-disciple system but can be imparted through institutions teaching music.

Folk Music

  • Besides classical music India has a rich legacy of folk or popular music. This music represents the emotion of the masses.
  • The simple songs are composed to mark every event in life. They may be festivals, advent of a new season, marriage or birth of a child.
  • Rajasthani folk songs such as Mand and Bhatiali of Bengal are popular all over India. Ragini is a popular form of folk songs of Haryana.
  • Folk songs have their special meanings or messages. They often describe historical events and important rituals.
  • Muslims sing Sojkhwani or mournful songs during Muharran and Christmas carols music are sung in groups on the festive occasions.

Dances of India

  • The Rig Veda mentions dance and danseuse and compares the brilliant dawn to a brightly attrived danseuse.
  • In the Brahmanas, Jaiminiya and Kausitaki dance and music are mentioned together. The Epics are full of references to dances on earth and heaven.
  • Like music, Indian dance has also developed a rich classical tradition. It has a great power of expression and emotions while telling a story.
  • In India, the art of dancing may be traced back to the Harappan culture. The discovery of the bronze statue of a dancing girl testified to the fact that some women in Harappan performed dances.
  • In traditional Indian culture the function of dance was to give symbolic expression to religious ideas.
  • Along with classical dance forms, folk dance also flourished. In most of the regions the local dance form became very popular.
  • Manipuri dance, Rabindranath՚s dance, drama, chhau, ras, gidda, bhangra, garba are some of the folk dances that have flourished in India.
  • They are equally popular and have extreme acumen and innovation. Practically every region of our country has developed their own rich tradition of folk dances.
  • Here are some well known dances forms in India.
Well Known Dance Forms in India

Developed by: