Indian Culture: Science and Technology in India: The Medieval Period (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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  • However, on Ayurveda there was not much progress apart from some important treaties like Sarangdhara Samhita and Chikitsa Sangraha by Vangasena, the Yagaratbajara and the Bhavaprakasa of Bhavamisra were compiled. Use of Opium in its material medica and urine examination for diagnostic purpose was included in Sarangdhar Samhita.
  • During the medieval period, the Unani Tibb system flourished .
  • There was not much change in agricultural practices, only some changes like introduction of new crops and trees. The Western Ghats yielded black pepper and Kashmir maintained saffron while ginger and cinnamon in Tamil Nadu; Cardamom, Sandalwood and coconut from Kerala were Popular .
  • During the 16th and 17th century Tobacco, Chillies, potato , guava , custard apple , cashew and pineapple were also introduced .
  • Mango Grafting system were introduced by Jesuits of Goa
  • For irrigation, Wells, Tanks, Canals, and Rahat were used .
  • Land measurement and land classification system was introduced which was beneficial to the rulers as well as the tillers .
  • Science and technology in modern India have the role in National Development . In 1971, the Department of Science and Technology (DST) was setup and at State levels; State Council of Science and Technology have been established. Government also promotes research and schemes to encourage scientific temper in the country.
Science and Technology in Modern India
  • In Agriculture, India is able to produce 135 million tonnes of food grains as compared to 50 million tonnes thirty years ago with the help of modern Science and technological development. Indian Council for Agriculture Research (ICAR) played a key role in providing scientific education to farmers and other agricultural sectors for increasing yields of rice, pulses, oilseeds , social forestry, shift from chemical fertilizers to organic fertilizers.
  • In Industrial field constant efforts are made to use modern technologies. Government has also setup two organizations for the same, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) .
Scientific and Industrial Research
  • India has made significant progress in the field of Nuclear Energy but its aim to utilise nuclear technology is foremost for peaceful purposes. India is one of the few countries which can design , construct, and operate nuclear reactors on its own. India has the largest single scientific establishment the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) .
  • Scientific and technological development is also used in other fields such as ocean development, medical and health services , oil exploration and refining , environment protection, solar energy production, check pollution in rivers and many other. But India has shortcomings also as besides technological development and its usages many people are not been provided with basic requirements of life such as food , work , shelter for the poor.

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