Indian Culture: Socio and Cultural Issues in Contemporary India: Class, Family and Marriage (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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  • The Indian Society has evolved through the ages and advancement have taken place in diverse areas such as Caste and Class, Family, Marriage, Position of Women, Cultural Values and many others.
  • In Contemporary India, the major concern is security of people particularly of the vulnerable sections of the society.
  • In order to preserve our social and cultural values some of the important issues need to be addressed that are casteism, dowry, communalism, drinking, drug addiction and others faced by nation in general and communities in particular.
Caste System
  • Caste system has roots in Ancient India in which Varna or Caste prescribed duties to particular caste to which individual belonged and are rigid in character. This system was the outcome of the social and economic development but with time it became the source of division of the Society into high-castes and low-castes which need to remain segregated from each other. People belonging to the low caste were being exploited and there conditions detrioted with time to such an extent that they were not allowed to draw water from the common wells of the villages or even could go to the temples or even come closer to the people of high castes .
  • In Indian Democracy caste system has make it՚s working difficult as voting is influenced by Candidates caste and not on the policies which they promote.
  • Issues related to women – Indian constitution has given equal rights to both men and women such as voting rights, right to inheritance and property. Special care for the interests of the weaker sections of society is taken care by the government. Several legislative laws have been passed to uphold the interests of women related marriage, inheritance of property, divorce, dowry, domestic violence , etc. In 1976 Equal Renumeration Act was passed. The Government has also started a scheme for the protection of girl child called ladli in which girl get financial aid at the age of eighteen years. In India females faces Gender Discrimination in various fields like health, education and jobs . Discrimination was so cruel that many female babies were aborted, abondoned and deliberately neglected. However, government has taken many steps in promoting women empowerment by giving them reservations. Prejudice against the girl child becomes clearer and sharper from the data in sex ratio in the age group 0 - 6 years. In the census, 2011 this ratio has been recorded as 914 down from 927 in the census, 2001.
Dowry System
  • Dowry system is the practice that has worstly affected the Indian Culture. One of landmark legislation is the passing of Dowry Prohibition Act in 1961 by the Government of India . Despite the law blatant violation of this law is rampant because this system is embedded in our culture. Women are physically and psychologically tortured for dowry .
  • Substance abuse/addiction is the habitual use of or dependence on harmful substances like liquor/alcoholic drinks, tobacco, cigarettes, drugs. Adolescents are most likely to be trapped because they are exploring new world ideas, behaviours and relationships. Smoking and Drinking is the most common as they are available at cheaper rates.
  • Communalism means a strong attachment to one՚s own community to an extent that people tends to keep Nation secondly and there community foremost that other communities. India is a multi cultural society and the aggressive attitude of one community creates tensions and clashes between two religious communities. Hence, communal riots takes place.
  • Communalism poses great challenge to the Integrity of the country. Education is important means through which we can cope up with the peace and harmony in society. India is a secular country and is meant to treat all religions equally.
Issues of Poverty

Issues of poverty and unemployment in India is another massive problem. India is the second largest populated country. It is still a developing country that՚s why it face economic problems like unemployment, inflation, poverty and price rise. A large section of Indian Population is below the poverty line and it impact families in the form of poor quality of lifestyle, disease, low literacy, malnutrition and child labour becomes a serious concern. The development of the country is hindered by Poverty and Unemployment which gives birth to the evil practices such as Child Labour.

Child Labour

Problems of children needs to be addressed if a country wants to progress as children are the future of the country. India has a large population of children and they need to get the opportunities for good health and education. Due to poverty large number of children are not even able to complete there elementary education as they are moved into child labour which make them grow with hatred and agony and fail to become worthy citizen of the nation.

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