Chapter 5 – Summary of Modern India: India since Independence

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In 1798, lithography was invented. It used the specially prepared surface of a stone for printing a script, a picture, or drawing. A large number of copies of the same text could be printed in this way.

  • Since the new printing presses were not costly, their number grew at a fast pace. This, in turn encouraged a large number of writers to produce literature in different Indian languages.

  • Their original works as well as translations and adaptions of old Indian and western classics helped enrich our cultural heritage. This helped to bring about an awakening of the Indians.

  • Weeklies, fortnightly journals and daily newspapers were published almost in every language.

  • Although the total number of readers of newspapers was small as compared to their number in the European countries, a whole new set of national literature in the form of novels, essays and poems played a significant role in generating nationalism.

  • The end of the nineteenth century the press in India had become a powerful and an important instrument for creating, spreading, influencing and sharpening public opinion.

  • Consequently, the newspapers played a significant role in the dissemination of anti-British feelings by discussing, criticizing and commenting on government policies and on major social and economic issues.

  • This helped in promoting a pan-Indian consciousness and in giving important political education to the people of India.

Image of Important newspapers

Image of Important Newspapers

India Since Independence

  • Independent India can rightly be proud of her achievements too. One of the most important achievements of post-independent India is the paying of a sound foundation for a secular and democratic republic.

  • The parliamentary system of governance adopted since independence has stood the test of time and India is the largest parliamentary democracy in the world today.

  • Integration of the erstwhile princely states into the Indian union is another major achievement.

  • The reorganization of the states is still an ongoing process and new states and union territories are being formed as per needs and desire of the people.

  • Economic planning has been introduced after independence to ensure the country’s economic growth with social justice.

  • As a result India has made considerable progress in the sphere of economic development, particularly in the field of agriculture and agro based industries.

  • India has also made commendable progress in the field of science and technology.

  • In the high technology area also she is fast catching up with the highly developed counties.

  • The issue of India becoming a permanent member of the UN Security Council is similarly gaining wide acceptance today.

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