Chapter 8 – Religion and Philosophy in Ancient India: Main Characters of Buddha Philosophy (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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  • Gautama Buddha, who founded the Buddhist philosophy, was born in 563 BC at Lumbini, a village near Kapilavastu in the foothills of Nepal.
  • His childhood name was Siddhartha. His mother, Mayadevi, died when he was hardly a few days old.
  • He was married to Yashodhara, a beautiful princess, at the age of sixteen.
  • After a year of the marriage, he has a son, whom they maned Rahul. But at the age of twenty-nine, Gautama Buddha renounced family life to find a solution to the world՚s continuous sorrow of death, sickness, poverty, etc.
  • He then travelled a lot to spread his message and helped people find the path of liberation or freedom.
  • Gautama՚s three main disciplines known as Upali, Ananda and Mahakashyap remembered his teachings and passed them on to his followers.
  • Main Characters of Buddha Philosophy
    • Buddha presented simple principles of life and practical ethics that people could follow easily.
    • He considered the world as full of misery. Man՚s duty is to seek liberation from this painful world.
    • He strongly criticised blind faith in the traditional scriptures like the Vedas.
    • Buddha՚s teachings are very practical and suggest how to attain peace of mind and ultimate liberation from this material world.
Four Noble Truths of Buddha Philosophy
  • When Buddha saw human beings suffering from sickness, pain and death, he concluded that there was definitely suffering in human life.
  • There is pain with birth Separation from the pleasant is also painful. All the passions that remain unfulfilled are painful.

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