History and Appreciation of Art from 7th AD to 12th AD: Introduction (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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  • In India, the post Gupta period is known for the growth in temple architecture and sculpture.
  • These are the major dynasty which are frequent in growth of temple architecture and sculpture.
South and East

Pancharathas and mandapa structures can be seen in Mahabalipuram or Malappuram in south. The Chalukya՚s are remembered for sculptural activities. For the temple projects Cholas and hoysalas are always remembered. Techniques of bronze casting and intricate metal sculptures with delicate were done by Chola artist.

The temples during chola period:

  • Gangaikondacholapuram
  • Brihadeswar

The style of hoysalas was detailed study and intricate design. Many important temple projects were initiated during the Hoysalas period. The presence of temple sculpture part of the architecture is the specialty during Hoysalas period. Mukteswar temple, Ling raja temple, Raja rani temple in Orissa are some of the temple project taken by the Ganga ruler.

The important temple built during Ganga ruler were:

  • Kanchipuram
  • Chennai
  • Bhubaneshwar
  • Bankura
  • Belur
  • Hale bid
Types of Topics

Arjuna՚s Penance

Arjuna՚s Penance

Cave temple and structural temples are the part of moments of the Pallava dynasty. Malappuram is the most important sculptural work in this period. In the two huge rocks there is a relief. In the whole composition there is continuous flow.

  • The Crowd of life
  • Size human
  • Animal figure
  • All in flying position

In between rock there is cleft . Composition of life shown almost calms down in lower part and in upper part there is a lot of movement and energy. Gangavatarana is the name of the relief according to some scholar where Siva is receiving flow of Ganga in his hair. A four-armed figure which is divided in right is larger than the rest of them. All other think that a male figure (which they think is Arjuna) has been shown at one end in the posture of meditation is known as Arjuna՚s Penance.

Krishna Supporting Mount Govardhana

Krishna Supporting Mount Govardhana

During Hoysalas temple architecture is one of the important activities. Than other complicated temple architecture temples were decorated with the sculpture during this period. After the famous dynasties of Deccan Hoysalas style was named. Which is started on the middle of the eleventh century have come to an end in the mid fourteenth century. Dwarasamudra, the modern Hale bid was the capital of Hoysalas kings. There is a unique and highly characterized feature in Hoysalas style. We can see deep carving, undercutting, soft rhythms of the body contours, delicate and intricate designs in Hoysalas sculpture. Soft stone is fascinated by deep carving and undercutting. In Hoysalas carvings Krishna Sculpture is one of the best examples of the intricate and delicate. The central figure with human beings and cattle in different layers present an interesting way of narration in Krishna figure.

Surasundari from Konark

Surasundari from Konark

The best orissan architecture is the Sun Temple at Konark built by King Narasimha deva I of the Ganga dynasty in the eastern coast of India near Puri in Orissa. Sculptural development in this period was different. Gigantic structure and larger than life size sculptures is the famous feature of the temple. In Pala period black stone have a little bit of affinity with later Bengal style. Beauty and aesthetic value of the temple increases in sculpture of the temple. The different kind of quality in this temple is large Sun image and the female musician image. The images are full of volume and movement. Surasundari can be seen with drum. Drummer is shown with graceful beauty like a big face with smile, the rhythmic actions of the limbs and the slight tilt of the head. The curves and bends are present with a rhythm.

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