Psychology: Communication: Elements and Types of Communication (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Understanding the Meaning of Communication

Communication is a process of interaction with people and the environment. Communication is an important tool for controlling and motivating people by providing information to facilitate decision making.

Elements of Communication

The key elements of communication are as follows

  • Communication is two-way process: It involves a sender and a receiver.
  • There has to be a message: The information has to be in the form of a message, a directive, an idea, a feeling or an opinion.
  • Commonness of understanding: Communication can occur only when there is commonness of understanding between sender and receiver. The basis of commonness can be culture, language, and environment. Words, phrases, idioms, gestures and proverbs provide common basis for communication.
  • Modifying the behavior of other people: The information transmitted to the receiver brings forth a response in the form of some change in his/her behavior.
  • Method of giving information: Information is provided with the help of words or through gestures, expressions and the like.

Types of Communication

Communication can be broadly divided into verbal and nonverbal communication.

Types of Communication

Verbal Communication

When words are used as tools of interaction between two or more individuals, it is termed as verbal communication. It can be oral or written. Verbal communication provides us with meaningful interaction between people, information and direction. It is a fundamental requirement for life.

Nonverbal Communication

Gestures, eye contact, facial expressions, posture and body orientation, distance are some of the non-verbal ways of communicating.

Effective Communication

There are some difficulties that hinder effective communication.

Feature of Effective Communication

Certain features of effective communication is

  • Common frame of reference
  • Mutual interest
  • Common language
  • Common environment

Nonverbal Communication in Indian Context

Indians have high power-distance index, which indicates that cultural factors, such as hierarchy, authority, and age (elders) , play a definitive role in communications. Interpersonal relations, position of authority, age and gender determine the distance to be maintained between two people. People superior in status can directly look at a person from a lower status, but a person of lower status usually stands with eyes down cast (as a mark of respect) and stands at a reasonable distance from the superior person.

Role and Impact of Media

Media is the technological means of sending information, ideas and opinions to a large audience.

Positive Influence

Media has an important role to play; it both educates and enriches our lives. It provides educational information and improves academic performance. It collects and distributes information and news (religious, political, social, entertainment, and environmental) to the public.

Negative Influence

Media can be misused by spreading wrong information and news, often leading to violence, prejudice and hatred among communities.

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