Psychology: Motivation and Emotion: Nature of Motivation and Emotion (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Nature of Motivation

The Concept of Motivation

Motivation plays an important role in directing human behavior. In order to reach the goal, one needs to be aroused or feel active. Optimum level of arousal is required to remain motivated. Then people are motivated to behave in certain ways. Motivation can be of two types – intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is the one that comes from within the person, based on personal enjoyment of any task, and extrinsic motivation which is based on external rewards such as money, pay and grades.

Hierarchy of Needs

According to Abraham Maslow, there are several levels of need. Biological need is at the lowest level. Once these needs are met then safety becomes important, followed by need to belong and to love and be loved If we succeed in satisfying the mentioned needs then we feel the need to have self esteem, confidence, and feeling of self worth. Next come cognitive needs which include need for knowledge and understanding, followed by need for order and beauty. Finally, a person moves towards reaching the full potential called self-actualization.

Primary Needs

  • β€˜Need’ refers to a lack of something that is necessary for us. Motives or needs are characterized in terms of primary and secondary needs or motives. Primary needs are biological needs such as hunger, thirst, oxygen, rest, sleep, temperature regulation, warmth, shelter, excretion, and sex.
  • Influence of culture and environment on primary needs: Environmental factors also have an effect on primary needs e. g. , In case of hunger specific food would lead to more hunger, dinner timing would lead to huger feeling.

Secondary Needs

Secondary needs lead to psychological or social motives. They are called social motives because they are learned in social group. The secondary needs are as follows:

  • Achievement: To strive for success and excellence, carry out difficult tasks.
  • Affiliation: To seek and enjoy the company of others, to make friends.
  • Power: To strive for impact on others, to influence, control and persuade others.
  • Nurturance: To help and take care of others such as children, elderly or sick persons.
  • Aggression: To fight, forcefully overcome opposition, to hurt and ridicule.
  • Exploration: To seek a variety of stimulation, to explore novel things.

Nature of Emotion

  • Function of emotion: Emotion plays several roles. It helps to prepare for action, help prepare activities for future and helps us interact effectively with others.
  • Components of emotion: The emotion has three basic
Nature of Emotion

Physiological Changes

  • when a person feels an emotion, certain changes take place in our body such as increase in heart rate, blood pressure, pupil size is increased, perspiration takes place, breathing is faster, and the mouth may become dry.
  • Behavioral changes and emotional expression refer to the outward and noticeable signs of what a person is feeling. The six primary emotions in facial expressions are: fear, anger, sadness, surprise, disgust and happiness.

Emotional Feelings

Emotion also includes the personal/individual feeling.

Emotion and Culture

Basic emotions and their expressions are universal in nature, yet culture provides guidelines towards how and when to show emotions.

Role of Emotion and Motivation in Everyday Role

Our motivation is also accompanied by emotions. Any situation that brings about a strong emotion is likely to motivate you to either repeat it or to avoid it. Thus, both motivation and emotion are forces that push us towards action. Primary needs like hunger, thirst and sleep and secondary needs like achievement, power or approval are accompanied by emotional reactions of satisfaction, joy and pride. Both motivation and emotion move, activate and help control and plan human behavior. ∴ The feeling part of emotion has a motivational component. It helps us to get what we want and to avoid what we do not want in life. ∴ Emotions can serve as motives.

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