Science: Sources of Energy: Geothermal and Hydrogen Energy (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Geothermal Energy

  • Geothermal energy is the energy that is produced from beneath the earth. It is clean, sustainable and environment friendly.
  • High temperatures are produced continuously inside the earth՚s crust by the slow delay of radioactive particles.
  • Hot rocks present below the earth heats up the water that produces steam. The steam is then captured that helps to move turbines.
  • The rotating turbines then power the generators.
  • Geothermal energy can be used by a residential unit or on a large scale by an industrial application.
  • It was used during ancient times for bathing and space heating. The biggest disadvantage with geothermal energy is that it can only be produced at selected sites throughout the world. The largest group of geothermal power plants in the world is located at The Geysers, a geothermal field in California, United States.

Hydrogen Energy

  • Hydrogen is available with water (H2O) and is most common element available on earth. Water contains two-thirds of hydrogen and can be found in combination with other elements.
  • Once it is separated, it can be used as a fuel for generating electricity. Hydrogen is a tremendous source of energy and can be used as a source of fuel to power ships, vehicles, homes, industries and rockets.
  • It is completely renewable, can be produced on demand and does not leave any toxic emissions in the atmosphere.

Tidal Energy

  • Tidal energy uses rise and fall of tides to convert kinetic energy of incoming and outgoing tides into electrical energy.
  • The generation of energy through tidal power is mostly prevalent in coastal areas. Huge investment and limited availability of sites are few of the drawbacks of tidal energy.
  • When there is increased height of water levels in the ocean, tides are produced which rush back and forth in the ocean.
  • Tidal energy is one of the renewable source of energy and produce large energy even when the tides are at low speed.
Tidal Energy

Wave Energy

  • Wave energy is produced from the waves that are produced in the oceans. Wave energy is renewable and causes no harm to atmosphere.
  • It can be harnessed along coastal regions of many countries and can help a country to reduce its dependence on foreign countries for fuel.
  • Producing wave energy can damage marine ecosystem and can also be a source of disturbance to private and commercial vessels.
  • It is highly dependent on wavelength and can also be a source of visual and noise pollution.

Hydroelectric Energy

  • What many people are not aware of is that most of the cities and towns in the world rely on hydropower and have for the past century. Every time you see a major dam, it is providing hydropower to an electrical station somewhere.
  • The power of the water is used to turn generators to produce the electricity that is then used.
  • The problems faced with hydropower right now have to do with the aging of the dams.
  • Many of them need major restoration work to remain functional and safe, and that costs enormous sums of money.
  • The drain on the world՚s drinkable water supply is also causing issues as townships may wind up needing to consume the water that provides them power too.

Biomass Energy

  • Biomass Energy is produced from organic material and is commonly used throughout the world.
  • Chlorophyll present in plants captures the sun՚s energy by converting carbon dioxide from the air and water from the ground into carbohydrates through the process of photosynthesis.
  • When the plants are burned, the water and carbon dioxide is again released back into the atmosphere.
  • Biomass generally include crops, plants, trees, yard clippings, wood chips and animal wastes. Biomass energy is used for heating and cooking in homes and as a fuel in industrial production
  • This type of energy produces large amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

Transformation of Energy

  • As per the “Law of Conservation of Energy” , energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it can only be transformed from one form of energy into another.
  • e. g. The food has chemical energy stored in it. When our body uses this stored energy to do some work, it gets converted into kinetic energy.

Conservation of Energy

  • The key for resolving the country՚s energy crisis lies with us citizens. Among things we can do is the conservation of our non-renewable sources of energy.
  • we should not only judiciously use energy sources but save energy as much as we can.
  • Some of the important tips for saving energy are
  • Switch off lights, fans and other appliances when not in use. Water taps should not be left open.
  • While cooking rice, dal etc. the vessel should remain covered.

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