Science: Matter in Our Surroundings: Types of Separation of Mixtures (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Separation of Mixtures

All these separation techniques are based on difference in the physical properties of the components present in the mixture. The following two factors decide the best possible technique to be adopted for separation:

Separation of Mixtures
  • The type of mixture,
  • The component which you want to collect.

Separation by Using Separating Funnels

The mixture of two immiscible liquids (i.e.. , the liquids that do not mix, as oil and water) can be separated by using a separating funnel. The mixture is placed in separating funnel and allowed to stand for sometimes. When the two layers of liquids are separated, the denser liquid which is in the lower part, is first collected by opening the stopcock.

Separation by Evaporation

The separation of liquid (solvent) and solid (solute) from a solution is done by removing the liquid (solvent) by heating or by solar evaporation. If the solvent is inflammable you cannot use flame for heating instead you can use an electrical heating system and an oil or water bath.

Separation by Filtration

Filtration is a better method for separating solids from liquids in heterogeneous mixtures. In filtration the solid material is collected as a residue on filter paper and the liquid phase is obtained as filtrate.

Separation by Crystallization

Crystallization is a process of formation of solid crystals from a solution. The method of crystallization for separating solid from liquid begins by evaporating the liquid. However, in crystallization, the evaporation is stopped when the solution is concentrated enough. The concentrated solution thus produced, is allowed to cool slowly to form crystals which can be separated by filtration. Mishri (sugar crystals) is produced by crystallization from concentrated sugar solution.

Separation by Distillation

The distillation is a process in which a liquid or mixture of liquids is boiled in a distillation flask. The vapour is condensed by passing through a water-cooled tube called condenser and collected as liquid called distillate. In case of a solution of two miscible liquids (the liquids which can be mixed completely) the separation is based on the fact that the liquids will have different boiling points and there is a wide difference between the boiling points of the two liquids.

Separation Based on Magnetic Properties

In a mixture of magnetic and non-magnetic substances, the magnetic substance can be separated by using a magnet. For example, you will be able to separate iron granules, which are magnetic, from non-magnetic substances like sand, sugar, saw dust etc. In industry this method is used to separate iron materials from non-magnetic materials by using large electromagnets. e. g. of iron ore.

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