Science: Building Blocks of Life: Muscle Tissue: Nervous Tissue and Connective Tissue (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

Doorsteptutor material for CBSE/Class-10 is prepared by world's top subject experts: get questions, notes, tests, video lectures and more- for all subjects of CBSE/Class-10.

Muscle Tissue

There are three types of muscle tissue:

  • skeletal
  • smooth
  • cardiac

Skeletal and cardiac muscle are striated. Striated muscle cells are striped, with regular patterns of proteins responsible for contraction. Striated muscle contracts and relaxes in short bursts, whereas smooth muscle contracts for longer.

  • Skeletal muscle is a voluntary muscle. It is striated in appearance. Skeletal muscle tissue has regularly arranged bundles. It is anchored by tendons and is used to effect skeletal muscle movement, such as locomotion, and maintain posture. The muscles have a reflex action but can also respond to conscious control.
  • Smooth muscle is an involuntary, non-striated muscle with tapered ends. It is found within the walls of blood vessels such as arteries and veins. Smooth muscle is also found in the digestive system, urinary tract and in the trachea. It is responsible for involuntary rhythmic contractions of peristalsis, required for moving food down the alimentary canal, and for the dilation and construction of blood vessels to control blood pressure.
  • Cardiac muscle is the major tissue making up the heart. It is an involuntary muscle that is striated in appearance. However, unlike skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle connects at branching, irregular angles. The connected branches help with coordinated contractions of the heart.
Muscle Tissue

Nervous Tissue

  • Cells making up the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system are classified as nervous tissue. In the central nervous system, nervous tissue forms the brain and spinal cord. In the peripheral nervous system, the nervous tissue forms the cranial nerves and spinal nerves, which include the sensory and motor neurons.
  • The function of nerve tissue is to transmit nerve impulses around the body. Nerves consist of a cell body (soma) , dendrites, which receive impulses, and axons which send impulses. The axons of neurons are surrounded by a myelin sheath. The myelin sheath consists of layers of myelin, a white fatty substance. The myelin sheath՚s main function is to insulate nerve fibers and it also increases the speed of the impulses transmitted by the nerve cell. There are three types of nerve cells: sensory neurons, interneurons and motor neurons.

Connective Tissue

Connective tissue is a biological tissue that is important in supporting, connecting or separating different types of tissues and organs in the body. All connective tissue is made up of cells, fibers (such as collagen) and extracellular matrix. The type of intercellular matrix differs in different connective tissues. There are different types of connective tissues with different functions. The following table lists some of the different types of connective tissue.

Developed by: