Science: Life Processes-1: Transport of Materials in Plants and Transportation in Humans (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Transport of Materials in Plants

Transport of Water

  • Roots of plants take up water and minerals from the soil.
  • Tracheid՚s and vessels, which are non-living cells of xylem, transport water picked up by root hairs from soil to the leaves.
  • The upward movement of water and minerals from soil termed ‘ascent of sap’ is against gravity and is due to transpiration pull. Transpiration is the process in which a lot of water evaporates (as water vapour) from stomata. This evaporation creates a vacuum and pulls up water through the xylem. This is transpiration pull.

Transport of Food Material

Sugars and other food molecules synthesized in the leaves are transported to other parts of the plant through phloem. Sieve tubes are living cells of the phloem, which transport food . Transport of food material from leaves to other parts of the plant is called translocation. This food may then be stored in fruits, stem or roots.

Transport of Food Material

Transportation in Humans

The circulatory system is a transport system of the human body which consists of a network that supplies food, water, oxygen and other substances throughout the body.

The main parts of the circulatory system are:

  • Blood
  • Blood Vessels
  • Heart


Blood is a red color fluid that flows in our body through the blood vessels.

Functions of Blood

  • The blood acts as the medium of transportation of essential substances throughout our bodies such as oxygen and nutrients. Blood carries oxygen from the lungs and transports it to different cells of the body.
  • The blood also carries waste material to the kidneys which then filters the blood. The small intestine digests the food and absorbs its nutrients. These nutrients are provided to all the parts of the body through blood.
  • The blood also protects the body from losing blood by forming a blood clot at the place of injury.
  • The blood contains a special substance that helps in regulating the temperature of the body.

Components of Blood

Blood can perform several functions because of different substances present in it.

Blood Plasma

the liquid substance present in the blood is called blood plasma. Almost 55 % of the blood is blood plasma. The plasma facilitates the transportation of different substances throughout the body. The blood plasma is made up of water, salt, fats, proteins and sugar.

Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)

They are present in ample amount in the blood (40 % to 45 %) . They are red in color because they contain a special pigment called hemoglobin. The oxygen we take in binds itself with

the hemoglobin and hence reaches every cell of the body through the blood.

White Blood Cells (Leukocytes)

They are present in fewer amounts (almost 1 %) but perform a vital function in the body. These cells fight against the germs present in the body.

Blood Platelets

These are the cells that help in the formation of a blood clot and prevent the blood from flowing out of the body due to an injury.

Blood Vessels

Our body contains tube-like structures called the blood vessels that help in the transportation of blood throughout our body. Our body contains two types of blood vessels based on the function that they perform:


We know that the heart pumps the blood in the arteries. This continuous pumping of blood in the arteries results in their rhythmic throbbing which is called Pulse.

Pulse Rate

Pulse rate is defined as the number of pulse beats per minute. The normal pulse rate of human beings is 70 to 80 beats per minute.

Pulmonary Artery

The pulmonary artery is a special blood vessel that connects the heart to the lungs. It takes blood that contains less oxygen (deoxygenated blood) from the heart to the lungs. Hence, it is unlike all other arteries that carry oxygen-rich blood.

Pulmonary Vein

The Pulmonary vein is a special blood vessel that connects the lungs and the heart. It carries oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the heart. Hence, it is unlike all other veins that carry oxygen-less blood.


Small blood vessels are called capillaries. The arteries divide themselves into capillaries which then deliver oxygenated blood to the tissues in the body. Then these capillaries take up the deoxygenated blood from the tissues to the veins.

Blood Vessels: Capillaries

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