Science: Food Production and Animal-Husbandry: The Green Revolution (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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The Green Revolution in Indian Agriculture

  • Under the Green Revolution agricultural yield increased in the fields with limited area due to the use of improved technology and additional resources. For the food security of India՚s growing population, agricultural productivity got enhanced. But sustainability of improved agriculture proved to be a major challenge.
  • fertilizers and pesticides began to be used for increasing prod Industries that manufacture agricultural implements, pumps, fertilizers, and insecticides need to establish. Productivity.
  • Irrigation and power projects are to be encouraged to receive a regular supply of water and energy for farming.
  • Research and Developmental institutes are needed for the generation of new, healthy, pest-resistant and high-quality crops.
  • The branch of agricultural science which is concerned with crop production and the management of farms is called Agronomy.

Principles of Crop Production

The following principles should be adopted for crop production and agricultural field management:

  • Maintenance of fertility and productivity of soil needs arrangement for prevention of diseases, and removal of used pests and weeds.
  • Sowing healthy seeds in the field at the right time, at the right distance and up to the correct depth.
  • Proper arrangements for availability of water and fertilizers.
  • Selection of right crop types in accordance with variation in type of soil and climate.
  • Crop harvesting at a suitable time.

Methods of Crop Production

  • Crop rotation
  • Mixed farming
  • Multiple cropping
  • Organic farming

Crop Rotation

  • Growing of crops in a predetermined sequence, at a particular time, is called crop rotation.
  • In this method, those crops are grown first that require more water. Subsequently crops requiring less water are grown on the same field. For instance, first rice is planted; then gram. Similarly, first those crops are grown which require more fertilizers.

Mixed Cropping

Mixed Cropping is the growing of two or more than two crops at the same time in the same field, For instance, mixed cropping of wheat with peas; of wheat with Mustard; or groundnut with sunflowers. During this process, the crop seeds are combined and scattered in the fields or they are planted in separate rows as their maturation time and harvesting time are different.

Multi Cropping

Multi cropping is the planting of two to four crops, during the same year, in the same field. Multicopying is only possible when we plant crops that require planting for a shorter period of time. For better results, properly managed field is essential. In fact, multicopying is an ideal solution for a country facing food problems. Several crops become available at the same time from a small area.

Organic Farming

It targets high quality crop yields, through the use of various techniques, in such a way, that the natural environment is not adversely affected. It also ensures that humans, who inhabit this natural environment are not affected in a negative way


Horticulture includes the gardening of fruits and vegetables. In Horticulture the subject of the increased yield of fruits and vegetables and their appropriate cultivation in studied.

Improved Agricultural Practices

Making the Soil Suitable for Farming

The uppermost, thin crust of the earth (topsoil) , covers the earth like a sheath. This itself functions as the basis for plant life and its growth. It functions as a natural medium. This upper crust is formed of the products derived from various kinds of stones that have combined with organic products.

Treatment of Seeds

Seeds are attached easily by tiny microbes. The crop that is grown with diseased seed will also be diseased. In order to save these seeds from disease. Farmers ‘treat’ them by immersing chain in chemicals such as Cerocen and Agrocen.

The Preparation of Seed Field and Taking Care of New Plants

Seeds of some crops like rice and some vegetables are not sown directly in the main fields. Firstly, these seeds are sown in the planted field. After a certain period, they are planted in the main field.


The process of shifting the new plants from the field where they were sown to the main field is called transplantation. Plants containing at least 4 - 5 healthy leaves should be selected for transplantation.

The Use of Plant-Growth Regulators

These chemicals that control the rate of growth of plants, are called plant growth regulators. All the plants contain growth regulators that determining the height of plants and the size of fruits.


Irrigation is necessary for the proper growth of crops. Irrigation depends upon the characteristics of the topsoil and the type of crops. Crops need to be especially irrigated in their young stage.

Irrigation is Necessary

Harvesting Crops

the farmers used to cut the harvest with sickle but now this work has become easier after the invention of more sophisticated harvesting implements. More implements cut or dig only the required portion of the plants and their various parts.

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