Science: Health and Hygiene: Signs of Physical, Mental and Social Health (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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According to the World Health Organization (WHO) , health is a “State of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease” . It means proper functioning of the body and the mind. People enjoying good health are more cheerful, energetic, full of life, more efficient at work and therefore more productive.

Health and Hygiene

Signs of Physical Health

If you have good physical health you:

  • shall be energetic and alert.
  • have weight which is normal for your age and height.
  • have bright and shining eyes.
  • have all the body organs functioning normally and fall sick less often.
  • have clean and clear skin.
  • have normal growing hair of natural color and texture.
  • have odorless breath.
  • have good appetite and
  • get sound sleep.

Healthy individuals are active, responsive and happy and can work hard and perform well

Signs of Mental Health

If you have good mental health, you shall have:

  • control over your emotions
  • balanced feelings, desires, ambitions and ideas
  • the ability to accept the realities of life and face them
  • confidence in yourself
  • the ability to cope with the normal stresses of life
  • sensitivity towards needs of others

Signs of Social Health

If you have good social health, you shall:

  • have a positive attitude towards life
  • get along well with others
  • have a pleasant personality
  • fulfil responsibility/duties towards others
  • have healthy interpersonal relationships
  • be able to express disagreement positively


The various practices that help in maintaining health constitute hygiene.

Aspects of Personal Health

Balance Diet

A balanced diet is one containing carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals and fibers in correct proportion to meet the nutritional requirement of a person at a certain age and doing a certain amount.

Personal Hygiene

  • Regular toilet habit: Regular bowel movement keeps us free of waste generated within the body.
  • Washing hands before eating: Our hands may carry many disease-causing germs and therefore we must wash them with soap or ash before taking food.
  • Bathing regularly and wearing clean clothes: Bathing regularly keeps our body free of dirt, body lice and germs.
  • Cleaning the teeth: When we eat, some food particles may remain stuck to our teeth. These particles attract germs which harm our gums and teeth and cause bad breath. Brushing teeth every morning and after dinner helps in their removal.
  • Washing hair, cleaning eyes, ears and nails: Regular washing and combing of hair and washing eyes with clean water helps to keep the germs away. Nails of both hands should be clipped regularly. Nail biting is unhygienic and must be avoided.

Domestic Hygiene

Disposal of garbage in the allotted bins ensures clean surroundings and prevents breeding of disease-causing organisms. Used sanitary napkins need to be wrapped and put in the garbage bins.

Community Health

is the practice of preventing disease and promoting health of a population through the organized efforts of society, public and private organizations, communities and individuals?

Some of These Activities and Programs Are Listed Below

  • Maintain cleanliness of the villages, towns, cities and localities through proper garbage disposal.
  • Ensure that prescribed standards in food stores, meat and milk outlets are strictly followed.
  • Organize health promotion and disease prevention, including
  • Immunization programmes for infants and children, for instance The National Pulse Polio Programme that is being run by the government.
  • Various awareness programmes have been undertaken against the spread of diseases of national concerns like malaria, AIDS, polio, leprosy, tuberculosis and hepatitis B. The National Malaria Eradication programme is an example of one such programme.

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