NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 1 Ancient World, Introduction Part 2 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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The Bronze Age

Mesopotamian Civilization

  • In between two rivers {the Tigris and Euphrates} , the land Mesopotamia was lying, which lies in modern day Iraq.
  • The river often faces flood, due to this it deposits a lot of silt which makes the land around them very fertile, this results in food production.
  • The abundant agricultural produce enabled the growth of a number of crafts persons like;
    • Smiths
    • Potters՚ masons
    • Weavers
    • Carpenters.
  • For transport and communication, they use;
Mesopotamian Civilization
  • Art of writing was also developed.
  • The products were sold and from others they got their necessities through exchange.
  • The ruling class consisted of;
    • Priests
    • Kings
    • Aristocrats
  • Besides them there were also;
    • Merchants
    • Ordinary people
    • The slaves
  • Mesopotamia peoples worshipped many gods and goddesses like;
    • Sky
    • Sun
    • Moon
    • Fertility
Cuneiform Script

Egyptian Civilization

  • In Egypt another civilization arose, along with the River Nile, which made the land fertile.
  • The kings of Egyptian were called Pharaohs.
  • In their service they had ministers and officers who administered the land and collected taxes for them.
  • In society a very high and honourable position is enjoyed by the priests.
  • In each town or city temples were dedicated to a particular god.


The ancient Egyptian script.

  • Both on land and water, traders and merchants carried out their business.
  • Skilled workers like stone-cutters and carpenters were also there in this period.
  • Egyptians had considerable knowledge of weights and measures.
  • Mummies;
    • Pharaohs built the great monuments of the ancient world – the Pyramids, Since the Egyptians believed in afterlife; they preserved the dead bodies.

Chinese Civilisation

  • In the Hwang Ho valley of North China, Chinese civilization grew highly.
  • The Shangs (1523 BC to 1122 BC) first rulers, who built China՚s first cities.
  • They contribute more to art and culture.
  • During this period Chinese writing system was developed.
  • In this period bronze workers were experts in their fields.
  • The Shang dynasty was overthrown by the Zhous, who assembled strong forts and walled towns to safeguard themselves from intruders.
  • In China on 221 BC Chin has come to power.
  • They ordered the uses throughout their empire some of the uses are of;
    • Common language
    • Common laws
    • Common weights
    • Measures
  • The Han dynasty came to power, after chin, who ruled till AD 220.
  • Chinese traders had contact with the West through the famous Silk Route, crossing Central Asia and Persia during this period.
  • The people of China worshipped a number of deities and also the worship of ancestors, nature and spirits were very common in china.
  • Confucius advocated a system of right behavior that greatly influenced Chinese society and government.

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