NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 1 Ancient World, Introduction Part 5 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Iron Age Civilisation

  • 3000 years ago, Iron Age began, when it came to be produced on a large scale and its use became common.
  • Then copper and bronze it was much cheaper.
  • For the extension of cultivation, the use of iron tools and implements enabled our forefathers to clear forests and to reclaim lands.
  • Production of agriculture was also increased.
  • In the social and economic life of the people it brought radical change.
  • The use of iron had a great impact on;
    • Transport
    • Communication
  • To make it stronger iron rims and spokes were used in wheels.
  • For making boats and ships, Iron nails and sheets were widely used.
  • New weapons of war like the;
    • Use of long
    • Heavy sword
    • Sabre/saber
    • Iron-shield
  • Spear and lance changed the methods of warfare.
  • A period of intellectual progress was the period of the Iron Age.
  • The beginning of alphabets was the most important development.
  • During the Iron Age, Civilisations that flourished were;
    • Greece
    • Rome
    • Persia
    • India

Greek Civilisation

  • More than 2000 years ago Greek civilization flourished in Greece.
  • The emergence of many independent city-states has developed a remarkable system of government.
  • A unique feature of Greek civilisation was the development of city-state.
  • A fort called Acropolis which was situated on a hilltop.
  • Athens and Sparta are the most important among the Greek city-states.
  • The most important thing in this period was training in warfare.
  • A long war between Athens and Sparta is called the Peloponnesian War, it lasted for 27 years and Athens were defeated.
  • Ancient Greece were pioneers in;
Greek Civilisation

Plato and Aristotle were great philosophers whose work is studied even today.

  • The famous historians were;
    • Herodotus
    • Thucydides
  • The great scientists were;
    • Archimedes
    • Aristarchus
    • Democritus
  • The great dramatists;
    • Aeschylus
    • Sophocles
    • Aristophanes
  • Temples and palaces were built beautifully and also great knowledge of architecture was the Greeks.
  • In the place of the Olympia Olympic Games were first recorded in 776 BC was held every four years.
  • At the age of thirty-three Alexander was dead.
  • His kingdom was broken into small pieces after his death.

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