NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 1 Ancient World, Introduction Part 9 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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The Sangam Age (300 BC - 200 AD)

  • In South India the historical period began with the Sangam Age.
  • ‘Sangam’ An assembly of scholars of literacy figures, held under the royal patronage of Pandyan kings of Madurai.
  • Early Tamil literature comprised works such as;
    • Tolkappiyam
    • The Eight Anthologies (Ettutogai)
    • The ‘ten Idylls’ (pattupattu)
    • The ‘Eighteen Minor Works’
    • The three Epics (Shilappadikaram, Manimekalai and Sivaga Sindamani) .
  • Roughly between 300 BC to 200 A. D the Sangam Age extended.
  • The Cheras ruled over Kerala
  • The Cholas occupied Northern Tamil Nadu
  • Southern Andhra Pradesh.

The Kushana Age

The Kushana Age
  • In India they ruled the western and north-western parts.
  • The Kushanas were a branch of the Yue-Chi tribe of Central Asia and also Kujula Kadphises was the first ruler of the Kushanas.
  • Kanishka was the greatest ruler of the Kushana dynasty.
  • He became king after the death of Vima.
  • Kushana conquered Kashmir and established his supremacy over the Indo-Gangetic plains.
  • In central he occupied;
    • Kashgar
    • Yarkhand
    • Khotan
  • Kanishka was a devoted Buddhist and also, he was also a great patron of art and learning.
  • Kanishka՚s successors were;
    • Vashishka
    • Huvishka
    • Kanishka II
    • Vasudeva
  • Among them Vasudeva was the last great ruler of the Kushanas.
  • The fall of Kushana Empire denoted the beginning of political uncertainty in north India which proceeded for few centuries.

The Gupta Age (319 AD-550 AD)

  • In Indian history in the 4th century AD the rise of Gupta Power marked the beginning of a new era.
  • Under the leadership and patronage of the amazing Gupta rulers, significant progress was made in various parts of Indian life.
  • The founder of the Gupta dynasty is Maharaja Shri Gupta, he was succeeded by Ghatotkacha Gupta.
  • Chandragupta I assumed the title of Maharajadhiraja, it was the first important Gupta Monarch.
  • Samudragupta was also an important Gupta emperor.
  • Samudragupta was a;
    • A great conqueror
    • A ruler
    • He was also a poet of high order
    • Patron of art and learning
    • a musician
  • ‘Ashwamedha yajna’ a symbol of imperial authority.
  • After his victory over the Shaka rulers of western India, Chandragupta II (380 - 415 AD) assumed the title of Vikramaditya.
  • Samudragupta made important matrimonial alliances in order to consolidate his power.
  • Samudragupta՚s daughter Prabhavati was married to the Vakataka ruler Rudrasena II.
  • Kumaragupta I was the son and successor of Chandragupta II.
  • Day to day administration the king was assisted by a Council of Ministers and other officials.
  • Governors ruled the provinces and the Guptas had a powerful army.
  • Number of officers are under the governors who administered the districts and Towns.
  • An efficient system of judicial and revenue administration was developed by Guptas.

Post Gupta Age (550 AD-750 AD)

  • A period of confusion and disintegration is the period between the downfall of the Gupta Empire and the rise of Maharaja Harshavardhana of Thaneshwar.
  • At this time India was broken into small independent states.
  • In Northern India besides the Huna power, there were four other kingdoms.
  • These were;
    • The later Guptas of Magadha
    • The Maukharis of Kanauj
    • The Pushyabhutis of Thaneshwar
    • The Mitrakas of Vallabhi (Gujarat)
  • Among the important South Indian Dynasties were;
    • The Chalukyas of Badami
    • The Pallavas of Kanchi
  • Pulakesin II (609 - 64 AD) Narasimhavarman I (630 - 668 AD) are considered to be the greatest of the Chalukya and the Pallava rulers.
  • The Chinese scholar-traveller, Hiuen Tsang, visited India during Harsha՚s reign.
  • In Indian society Hiuen Tsang writes about the existence of the caste system.
  • Hiuen Tsang mentions the existence of;
    • Untouchables
    • Outcastes
  • During this period the position of women had also declined considerably.
  • They also practice;
    • Vaishnavism
    • Shaivism
    • Jainism

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