NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 10 Climate of India, Mechanism of Monsoon Part 1 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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The Climate refers to the sum total of weather conditions and variations over a large area for a long period of time. On the other hand, the Weather is a state of the atmosphere over an area at any point in time.

Factors Affecting the Climate of India


  • The climate of an area varies from location to location.
  • The places which are closer to equator generally have high temperature. And the poles receive less temperature.
  • Towards the south in India, we find the tropical climate and towards the north, we find sub-tropical climate

Distance from the Sea

  • South India is surrounded by sea from three sides: the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean.
  • North India which is far away from the sea has an extreme type of climate and south India which is nearer to the sea has the equable type of climate.


  • The height above the average sea level.
  • The atmosphere becomes less dense and the atmosphere is inhabitable for humans at certain height.

Direction of Surface Winds

  • The wind system consists of monsoon winds, land and sea breeze, and local winds.
  • Winds blow from land to sea so they are cold and dry in winters.
  • In summer wind blow from sea to land and cause wide spread rain in most part of the country.

Upper Air Currents

  • The jet streams are a narrow belt of fast blowing winds located generally at 12,000 meter influence the climate.
  • These cyclonic winds originate near the Mediterranean Sea and move eastwards through jet stream.
  • These Jet streams shift northwards during summer season and blow in Central Asia, helps in the onset of monsoons.

Mechanism of Monsoon

  • The word monsoon comes from the Arabic word ‘Mausim’ which means season.
  • Monsoon defined by the seasonal reversal in the wind direction during a year.
  • There is a difference of temperature and pressure over North Central Indian Plains and Indian Ocean.
  • Thus, air from high pressure region of the sea starts moving towards the low-pressure region of North India.
  • Thus, by mid-June, there is a general movement of air is from the equatorial region of Indian Ocean to the Indian subcontinent and the direction of these winds, in general, is from Southwest to North-East.
  • The opposite happens in winter trade winds (North-East to South-West) .

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