NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 10 Climate of India, Mechanism of Monsoon Part 1 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Climate

The Climate refers to the sum total of weather conditions and variations over a large area for a long period of time. On the other hand, the Weather is a state of the atmosphere over an area at any point in time.

Factors Affecting the Climate of India

Location

  • The climate of an area varies from location to location.
  • The places which are closer to equator generally have high temperature. And the poles receive less temperature.
  • Towards the south in India, we find the tropical climate and towards the north, we find sub-tropical climate

Distance from the Sea

  • South India is surrounded by sea from three sides: the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean.
  • North India which is far away from the sea has an extreme type of climate and south India which is nearer to the sea has the equable type of climate.

Altitude:

  • The height above the average sea level.
  • The atmosphere becomes less dense and the atmosphere is inhabitable for humans at certain height.

Direction of Surface Winds

  • The wind system consists of monsoon winds, land and sea breeze, and local winds.
  • Winds blow from land to sea so they are cold and dry in winters.
  • In summer wind blow from sea to land and cause wide spread rain in most part of the country.

Upper Air Currents

  • The jet streams are a narrow belt of fast blowing winds located generally at 12,000 meter influence the climate.
  • These cyclonic winds originate near the Mediterranean Sea and move eastwards through jet stream.
  • These Jet streams shift northwards during summer season and blow in Central Asia, helps in the onset of monsoons.

Mechanism of Monsoon

  • The word monsoon comes from the Arabic word ‘Mausim’ which means season.
  • Monsoon defined by the seasonal reversal in the wind direction during a year.
  • There is a difference of temperature and pressure over North Central Indian Plains and Indian Ocean.
  • Thus, air from high pressure region of the sea starts moving towards the low-pressure region of North India.
  • Thus, by mid-June, there is a general movement of air is from the equatorial region of Indian Ocean to the Indian subcontinent and the direction of these winds, in general, is from Southwest to North-East.
  • The opposite happens in winter trade winds (North-East to South-West) .

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