NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 11 Biodiversity in India Part 2 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Wildlife in India

  • Around 80 per cent of all known plant and animal species on the earth are found in India.
  • The system of National parks, Wildlife sanctuaries and protected areas, first established in 1935, and protected under Wildlife Protection Act 1972.
  • India got 551 Wildlife Sanctuaries, 96 National Parks, 25 Wetlands and 15 Biosphere Reserves, 33 Botanical Gardens, 275 Zoological Parks, Deer Parks, Safari Parks, Aquaria etc.
  • Project Tiger 1973 and Project Elephant 1992 are useful for effective conservation.

Wildlife Sanctuaries

  • These are mainly to ensure the maintenance of the viable population of wildlife and their desired habitat.
  • India has around 2000 different species of birds, 3500 species of mammals, 30000 different kinds of insects and 15000 varieties of plants.
  • Protect endangered species like Asiatic Elephant, the Royal Bengal tiger, the Snow Leopard and the Siberian Crane.
  • Several migratory animals and birds like Olive Ridley Sea Turtles, Siberians Cranes and Flamingos

National Parks

  • To provide protection to the endangered species listed in the Act
  • To provide support to the conservation area of the country classified as a national park.
  • At present, there are 105 national parks in India.


  • An Area of land where the soil is saturated with moisture either permanently or seasonally.
  • Plant life found in wetlands includes the mangrove, water lilies, cattails, sedges, tamarack, black spruce, cypress, gum, and many others.
  • Animal life like many different amphibians, reptiles, birds, insects, and mammals.
  • The Ramsar Convention in 1971 in Iran is an international treaty designed to address global concerns regarding wetland loss and degradation.

Biosphere Reserves

  • The Indian government has established 15 Biosphere Reserves, which protect larger areas of natural habitat.
  • The Protection is granted not only to the flora and fauna of the protected region but also to the human communities who inhabit these regions.
  • Major objectives are to conserve diversity and integrity of the life of plants, animals and microorganisms
  • To promote eco-friendly sustainable life in the areas.
  • To promote ecological conservation, research, education, awareness and training in the life of such areas.

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