NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 12 Agriculture in India Part 1 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Title: Agriculture in India

Types of Farming in India

Subsistence Farming

  • It means the entire Farming for own consumption.
  • The total landholdings are small and fragmented.
  • The Cultivation techniques are primitive and simple
  • They mostly cultivate cereals along with oilseeds, pulses, vegetables and sugarcane.

Commercial Farming

  • The entire production is sold in the market for earning money.
  • The farmers use inputs like irrigation, chemical fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides and HVY seeds
  • Major crops are cotton, jute, sugarcane, groundnut etc.

Intensive and Extensive Farming

  • The amount of production per unit of land is the basic difference here.
  • India doesn՚t practice extensive cultivation.
  • The total production may be high due to the larger area but per unit are productivity is low.
  • The best example of intensive cultivation is in Japan where there is limited availability of land.
  • This practice is often seen in the state of Kerala in India.

Plantation Farming

  • In this system, there is a cultivation of a single crop on a large scale.
  • This system was introduced by the British for Commercial cultivation purely.
  • Tea, coffee, rubber, banana and spices are basic examples of plantation crops.

Mixed Farming

In this system, we see the cultivation of crops and rearing of livestock at the same time.

Salient Features of Indian Agriculture

  • Subsistence Agriculture has been practiced in India for long years.
  • Around 70 % of the population is still directly or indirectly dependent on agriculture.
  • The Green Revolution took place in India in the late sixties and early seventies that chance the face of Indian agriculture.
  • The complete mechanization of agriculture is still a distant dream for most of the farmer.
  • There has been a rapid expansion of irrigation infrastructure, however, only about one-third of the total cropped area is irrigated today.
  • Around two-third of cropped areas is still dependent upon monsoon which is affected by climate change.
  • Since India has both tropical and temperate climate, crops of both the climate are found easily in India.
  • The production of food crops is the first priority of farmers almost everywhere in the country.
  • There has been a decline in the share of land used for food crops due to various other commercially most advantageous uses of these lands.

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