NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 12 Agriculture in India Part 2 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Major Crops of India

Major Crops of India


  • One of the most important Kharif or summer crop.
  • It covers about 33 % of the total cultivated area of the country
  • It requires hot and humid conditions with 24°C mean monthly temperature.
  • The Rainfall between 150 - 300 cm is suitable for its growth.
  • The rice requires deep clayey and loamy soil for ideal growth.
  • The rice-producing states are Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttarakhand, Chhattisgarh, Punjab, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Assam and Maharashtra, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Gujarat and Kashmir Valley.


  • Wheat is a Rabi or winter crop.
  • Normally it sown in the month of October-November and harvesting is done in the month of March-April.
  • The ideal temperature is between to at the time of sowing and to at the time of ripening and harvesting.
  • The areas receiving annual rainfall of about 75 cm is best suited.
  • The well-drained fertile loamy and clayey loamy soil is best suited for wheat cultivation.


  • Millets are short duration warm weather Kharif crops.
  • These are mainly coarse grain crops and can be used for both food and fodder.
  • These are sown in May-August and harvested in October-November.
  • Some of these are Jawar, Bajra, Ragi, Korra, Kodon, Kutki, Hraka, Bauti, Rajgira are locally known.
  • The temperature which is required ranges between to .
  • The rainfall ranging from 50 to 100 cm is ideal for their cultivation.
  • These crops are less sensitive to soil deficiencies and can be grown in an inferior alluvial or loamy soil.
  • These are grown in Madhya Pradesh, Gujrat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab. And in the southern India i.e.. , Tamilnadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.


  • In India, we found a large variety of pulses
  • It accounts for about 37 % of the production and about 30 % of the total area of pulses in India.
  • Mild cool and comparatively dry climate with 20°C-25°C temperature.
  • 40 - 45 cm rainfall is favourable for gram cultivation.
  • It grows well on loamy soils.
  • Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Maharashtra accounts for 90 % of the total production.


  • It՚s a Kharif crop which requires a hot and humid climate with an average temperature of to
  • Average rainfall should be 75 - 150 cm.
  • The deep rich loamy soil is ideal. It should be rich in nitrogen, calcium and phosphorous.
  • India has the largest area under sugarcane cultivation in the world and the second-largest producer next to Brazil.


  • The Cotton is a Kharif crop and grown in tropical and sub-tropical areas.
  • It requires uniformly high temperature varying between and .
  • It needs at least 210 frost-free days in a year.
  • The Cotton cultivation is very closely related to Black soils of Deccan and Malwa plateau.
  • India has the largest area under cultivation and the third largest producer of cotton next only to China and the USA.
  • Panjab, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana are the major producing areas.


  • India has the largest area and production of oilseeds in the world.
  • Groundnut- It grows best in the tropical climate and requires 20°C to 30°C temperature.
  • The 50 - 75 cm rainfall is favourable for groundnut cultivation.
  • The Well drained light sandy loams, red, yellow and black soils are well suited for its cultivation.
  • A state like Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat are three main producers of groundnut in India which gives about 60 % of the total production


  • The tea plantation in India was started by the British in 1923.
  • It requires a hot and wet climate; temperature varies between to is ideal for its growth.
  • Annual rainfall should be ranging from 150 - 300 cm.
  • Assam is the leading producer that accounts for more than 50 % of tea production in India.

Major Challenges Faced by Indian Agriculture

  • Stagnation in Production of Major Crops
  • Farm inputs include fertilizer, insecticide, pesticides, and HYV seeds. It increases cost and reduces profit.
  • Depletion of fresh groundwater. And extreme dependence on monsoon.
  • The adverse effect of climate change like increase in sea level, more intense cyclones, unpredictable rainfall etc. can cause damage to the production.
  • Farmer inability to repay its debts to moneylenders.
  • Illiteracy among farmer.

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