NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 14 Population: Our Greatest Resource Part 1 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Title: Population: Our Greatest Resource

Population as a Resource

  • The population refers to the total number of people inhabiting a specified area or territory.
  • People of the country are a kind of resource because they produce and develop various facilities and services to make their lives comfortable
  • These facilities include transport and communication, schools, colleges, hospitals, electricity-producing units, infrastructure for irrigation and others.
  • Without humans, other resources cannot be developed and utilized properly.
  • The number of people, which is determined by the census, maybe a liability, but the qualitative population becomes the human capital of a country.
  • The country has to invest a lot in the form of improving the health and nutritional status of the people, their education and specialized training and their quality of life.
  • People as a human resource are both an object of development and also a participant in development.

Factors Making Population a Human Resource

  • Distribution of Population
  • Growth of Population
  • Population Composition

Distribution of Population

  • They are not evenly spread everywhere in the world and their numbers keep on changing.
  • The spread of population over an area may be in a state or the entire country, is known as the distribution of the population.
  • The ten most populous countries of the world contribute about sixty per cent of the world՚s population. Of these ten countries, six are located in Asia.
  • Each dot in the given map represents five lakh persons.
  • The number of dots is less in some states, even if the area is substantially large. It means that the population in these States is either widely spread or moderately spread.
  • In other States, the dots are very close to one another, so close that those parts in the map look almost painted. In them, the spread of population is very dense
Distribution of Population

Density of Population

  • The density of population refers to the number of persons living per unit of an area.
  • It is generally expressed as a number of people per square kilometre (sq km) .
  • The formula of Density of population = Number of people in a defined area unit/Total area in square km of that particular area.
  • In 1901 the density of population in India was as low as 77 persons per sq km.
  • But it has steadily increased from 90 persons per sq km in 1931 to 325 persons per sq km in 2001.
  • As per 2001 Census, the National capital territory of Delhi has the highest density of population (9340 people per square km) followed by the union territory of Chandigarh (7900 persons per sq km) .
  • Arunachal Pradesh has the lowest density, 13 persons per sq km. Among the States, West Bengal has the highest density of population, i.e.. , 903 persons per sq km.

Factors Affecting the Distribution and Density of Population

Physical Factors
  • The relief which shows the differences in elevation and slope between the higher and lower parts of the land surface of a given area which directly affects the accessibility of the area.
  • Easily accessible areas are most likely to be inhabited by people.
  • Thus, plains are densely populated and areas of rugged relief like mountains and plateaus are not.
  • We can see the drastic effect of relief between plain and hilly mountainous areas.
Climate
  • The climatic condition is the most important factors which affects density and distribution of the population.
  • The favourable climate provides suitable living conditions for human beings.
  • Thus, the higher density of population is found in the areas where the climate is favourable.
  • But areas with a harsh climate, i.e.. , areas that are too hot, too cold, and too dry or too wet we have a lower density of population.
  • In India, the area of Rajasthan, Valley in Jammu and Kashmir, or Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand has a low density of population.
Soil
  • Humans are depending upon the quality of soil for agriculture. Areas of fertile soil can support a larger population.
  • That is why the regions of fertile soil such as the alluvial plains of North India and coastal plains have a higher density of population.
  • On the other hand, the areas with less fertile soils like parts of Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Chhattisgarh have a lower density of population.

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