NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 14 Growth of Population Part 1 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Title: Growth of Population

  • The growth of population refers to the change in the population of an area for a point in time.
  • The change can be in terms of population growth or population negative growth.
  • The population of the world is still growing, and then there are countries where it is declining.
  • If the population grows at a faster rate, it goes into an imbalance between population growth and resources of a country.
  • That situation has an adverse impact on the quality of human resources.
  • The Indian population has been growing for long, from a population of 238 million in the year 1901; it increased to 1028 million in 2001 and is still growing.
  • The increase in population in India is more than four times within a span of a century.
  • On the other hand, there are countries in Western Europe where the population is declining.

Factors of Growth of Population

  • Birth Rate refers to the number of births per thousand of the population in a given year under a particular territory is called Crude Birth Rate.
  • Death Rate refers to the number of deaths per thousand of population in a given year under a particular territory is called Crude Death Rate.
  • Natural Growth Rate refers to the difference between birth rate and death rate. Therefore, natural growth rate = birth rate - death rate.
  • In the beginning of the 20th century, the population of India has been increasing in absolute numbers except during 1921 when there was a decline in absolute number.
  • After 1921, there has been a continuously rising trend. Hence the census year of 1921 is called the year of “The great divide” .
Factors of Growth of Population
  • The death rate along with the birth rate has been declining since 1921. However, the decline in the death rate has been faster than that of the birth rate.
  • Hence the gap between birth rate and the death rate has been widening, leading to an increase in population.
  • The decadal growth rate has declined marginally between 1981 and 1991 and again between 1991 - 2001.

Population Composition

  • The Population composition defined by characteristics such as age, sex, rural-urban or literacy status.
  • Age Composition has significant implications for the current and future development of a country.
  • The Population has been traditionally divided into three broad age groups.
  • Children (0 - 14 years) , adults (15 - 60 years) and old (more than 60 years) .
  • The child population is declining and the population of adults has been increasing since 1971.
  • However, the population of the old is also increasing. Thus, the share of the dependent population is increasing.
  • The population of the old and children are the dependent population. When the number of dependent populations increases, the dependency ratio goes up.

National Population Policy 2000 highlights as an “under-served population group” which requires special attention.

  • The following are various strategies describe by the National Population Policy 2000.
  • To provide accurate information about physical, physiological, psychological and social changes and developments that take place during adolescence;
  • To develop the needed life skills to empower them to avoid risky situations and to attain sound physical, mental and social health;
  • To provide food supplements and nutritional services; and
  • To make available the needed health and counselling services available to them.
  • Sex composition is a very significant indicator of the quality of the population of a country as a human resource.

Sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males.

  • It is important to measure the extent of prevailing equity between males and females at a given point of time.
  • The sex ratio has always remained unfavourable to females, and the matter of concern is that it has been declining.
  • In the year 1901, there were 972 females per 1000 males in India
  • In 2001, it has come down to 933.
  • The sex ratio in 0 – 6-year population is continuously decreasing.
  • In the 1991 and 2001 Census Reports showed some improvement in overall sex ratio, the sex ratio of 0 – 6-year population has decreased sharply.
  • Kerala, Mizoram, Sikkim, Tripura and Union Territory of Lakshadweep where the child sex ratio is in tune with the overall sex ratio.
  • Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab, and Uttarakhand, and the Union Territory of Chandigarh and National Capital Region of Delhi are the worst affected region.

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