NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 14 Growth of Population Part 4 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Rural Urban Composition

  • India has been a land of farmers and a country of villages.
  • At the beginning of the 20th century, nine out of ten persons used to live in villages.
  • More than of our population still lives in rural areas.
  • The conditions for urban areas are
  • three-fourth of the population depends directly or indirectly on non-agricultural work
  • Minimum of 5000 population
  • The density is not less than 400 persons per sq. km
  • Should have a municipality town area or Municipal Corporation.


  • It is defined as ‘a person aged seven and above, who can both read and write with understanding in any language is treated as literate’ .
  • Literacy rate in our India was 18.33 per cent in 1951.
  • However, it has increased to 65.37 percent in 2001.
  • Kerala has the highest literacy (90.86 percent) followed by Mizoram (88.49 percent) and Lakshadweep (87.52 percent) .
  • The literacy rate in general is lower among females as compared to males.

Population Policies in India

  • The interim government set up a Sub-Committee on the population under the National Planning Committee appointed in 1938.
  • The resolution of the committee was, “in the interest of social economy, family happiness and national planning, family planning and a limitation of children are essential” .
  • India was the first country in the world to launch a national population programme emphasizing family planning in 1952.
  • The aim was to reduce birth rates “to stabilize the population at a level consistent with the requirement of the national economy” .
  • The National Population Policy 2000 took the comprehensive steps in its approach to population issues.
  • The objective of economic and social development is to improve the quality of lives that people lead, to enhance their well-being, and to provide the opportunities and choices to become productive assets in the society.
  • The immediate objective of the National Population Policy 2000 is to address the unmet needs for contraception, health care infrastructure, and health personnel, and to provide integrated service delivery for basic reproductive and child health care.
  • The medium-term objective is to bring the total fertility rate to replacement levels by 2010 through the vigorous implementation of inter-sectoral operational strategies.
  • The long-term objective is to achieve a stable population by 2045 with sustainable economic growth, social development, and environmental protection.

Women Empowerment in India

  • The women empowerment is very crucial for improving the quality of population as a resource.
  • Women, in India, have been looked down upon and subjected to discrimination.
  • The role of women in our country is just limited to looking after their families, also being mute spectators to all kinds of discrimination, ill-treatments and crimes against them.
  • The Indian Constitution under Articles 14, 15, 16, 19, 39,42, 51 has made provisions to ensure justice and equality to all.
  • Laws like the Special Marriage Act 1954, Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1971 and the Child Marriage Restraint Act (Amendment) 1978.
  • The 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments providing 33 percent reservation of seats for women in Panchayati Raj institutions and Urban Local Bodies were passed by the Parliament.
  • The Constitution Amendment Bill has been introduced, which aims at providing 33 percent reservation for women in the House of the People and State Legislative Assemblies.
  • A National Commission for Women came into genesis in 1992, by an Act passed in 1990.
  • They investigate any ill-treatment brought to their notice against women and to safeguard their interest.
  • The objective is to facilitate the advancement, development and empowerment of women and to eliminate all forms of discrimination.
  • These steps will further ensure their active participation in all spheres of life and activities.

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