NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 15 the Indian Constitution Part 1 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Title: Constitution

  • Constitution means a set of fundamental principles, basic rules and established precedents (means standards/instances) .
  • It is not a static but a living document and can be altered if needed
  • It lays down limits on the power of the government
  • It identifies:
    • Powers and functions of the major institutions under the three organs of the Government – the executive, the legislature and the judiciary.
    • Relationships between the individual citizen and the State and government.
    • Provides for rights and freedoms of citizens

The Indian Constitution

  • Indian Constitution is the longest of all the written constitutions
  • It was prepared by the Constituent Assembly
  • The Constituent Assembly met for 166 days, spread over a period of 2 years, 11 months and 18 days
  • It came into effect on 26 January 1950.
  • It defines India as a sovereign, democratic, socialist and secular republic
The Indian Constitution

Constitutional Values

  • The constitutional values are reflected in the entire Constitution of India, but its Preamble embodies ‘the fundamental values and the philosophy on which the Constitution is based’ .
  • The constitutional values are:

Sovereignty

  • Svereign means having complete political freedom and being the supreme authority.
  • Free to determine for itself without any external interference

Socialism

  • Aimed at promoting social change and transformation to end all forms of inequalities.
  • Prevent the concentration of wealth and power in a few hands.

Secularism

  • It implies that our country is not guided by any one religion or any religious considerations.
  • It allows all its citizens to profess, preach and practice any religion they follow

Democracy

  • The people elect the rulers of the country and the elected representatives remain accountable to the people.
  • It is based on the principles of rule of law, inalienable rights of citizens, independence of the judiciary, free and fair elections and freedom of the press.

The Republic

The most important symbol of being a republic is the office of the Head of the State, i.e.. , the President

Justice

  • Justice must be availed to every citizen
  • The social and economic justice but also political justice

Liberty

Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship as one of the core values.

Equality

  • Equality of status and opportunity to every citizen for their development
  • Inequality in any form present in our country and society has been prohibited.

Fraternity

It stands for the spirit of common brotherhood among all the people of India.

Human Dignity

To secure the dignity of every individual

The Unity and Integrity of the Nation

The independence of the country intact, the unity and integrity of the nation is very essential

International Peace and a Just International Order

  • To promote international peace and security,
  • Maintain just and honourable relations between nations,
  • Foster respect for international law and treaty obligations,
  • Encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.

Fundamental Duties

  • Duties to be performed by the citizens.
  • These duties are not enforceable
  • These reflect certain basic values like patriotism, nationalism, humanism, environmentalism, harmonious living, gender equality etc.

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