NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 17 India – a Welfare State Part 2 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Directive Principles of State Policy

  • The fundamental rights provided in the Indian Constitution are primarily political rights.
  • The Constitution makers were well aware that the goals of Indian democracy would not be realized unless the people of India could avail of social and economic rights, even if all the fundamental rights are truly enforced in India.
  • After centuries of foreign rule, they were also alive to the limitations of the abilities of Indian state which attained independence and also was at a low level of socio-economic development.
  • In the list of fundamental rights, if the economic and social rights had been included in that situation, then the Indian state would have failed to enforce these rights because of its own limitations.


  • To the central and state governments of India the Directive Principles of State Policy are believed as guidelines.
  • while framing laws and policies governments must keep these principles in mind.
  • It is clearly known that provisions of the Constitution of India are non- justiciable, which means that these are not enforceable by any court of law.
  • In the governance of the country the principles are considered as fundamental.
  • The principles have been inspired by the;
    • Directive Principles stated in the Constitution of Ireland and also
    • By the principles of Gandhian philosophy.
  • “To create social and economic conditions under which all the citizens can lead a good life” is the aim of these principles.
  • By these principles All executive agencies have to be guided.
  • While deciding cases the judiciary has to keep them in mind.

Types of Directive Principles

  • There are different types of directive principles which are stated in the Constitution.
  • Some of them are related;
    • with socio economic development
    • to Gandhian thought
    • To foreign policy.
  • We may classify them under the following specific categories:
    • Principles promoting social and economic equality.
    • Principles related to Gandhian thought.
    • Principles related to International peace and security.
    • Miscellaneous Principles.

Principles Promoting Social and Economic Equality

  • In India, for realizing the goals of social and economical democracy there are certain principles that are very important.
  • Since ages in India many people have been suffering from social and economic inequalities.
Principles Promoting Social and Economic Equality

The following principles, are the states should ensure;

  • For its people adequate means of livelihood.
  • Fair distribution of the material resources of the country for the common good.
  • Distribute the wealth in such a way that the wealth is not concentrated in a few hands.
  • Be equal pay for equal work for both men and women.
  • The state is directed to take steps to impart compulsory and free education to the children up to the age of 14 years.
  • Try to secure participation of workers in the management of the factory.
  • Childhood and Youth should be protected against exploitation. Men, women and children should not be forced by economic necessity to enter jobs and vocations not suited to their age or strength.
  • The state should ensure to the people
    • the right to work
    • the right to education
    • the right to state assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement.
  • Make provisions for securing just and humane conditions of work for the workers and maternity relief for women.

Principles Related to Gandhian Thought

  • The basic principles of gandhian thought are;
    • Swaraj (Self-rule) .
    • Sarvodaya (welfare for all) .
    • Svavlambam (self-reliance) .
  • Mahatma Gandhi was at the forefront of the freedom movement we all know that.
  • Mahatma Gandhi՚s philosophy and actions guided not only our freedom movement but also it helps in framing of the Indian Constitution.
  • The following Directive Principles is the particular reflect Gandhian thought, in these principles the state shall;
    • Promote the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the society and in particular the interests of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.
    • Take steps to organize the village panchayats. These panchayats should be given such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-government.
    • Make efforts to prevent the consumption of alcoholic drinks and other harmful drugs.
    • Try to promote cottage industries in rural areas.
    • Take steps to improve the quality of livestock and ban the slaughter of cows and calves and other milch and draught cattle.

Principles Related to International Peace and Security

  • To our foreign policy guidelines were given by the constitution makers by included some principles, in these following principles the state shall;
    • Promote international peace and security.
    • Endeavor to maintain just and honorable relations with other nations.
    • Foster respect for international laws and treaty obligations.
    • Encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration, i.e.. . , Mutual agreement.

Miscellaneous Principles

  • There are some other Directive Principles which will not come under mentioned categories
  • From the following principles the state shall;
    • Endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country.
    • Take steps for the maintenance and protection of the historical monuments, places or objects of national importance.
    • Aim at establishing a uniform civil code for all citizens throughout the country.
    • Take steps to separate the Judiciary from the Executive.

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