NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 18 Agriculture in India, Introduction Part 5 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Major Challenges Faced by Indian Agriculture

  • There are two major problems and challenges that are faced by Indian Agriculture. One category of challenge, is that the problems that have been in a long run.
  • Second category of the problems is new challenges that occur in agricultural practices and system, the inconsistent economy and natural changes. Let us see in detail about the challenges that Indian agriculture face

Stagnation in Production of Major Crops

  • Major food crops such as rice and wheat are being stagnated for a longer time, which makes our agricultural scientists, planners and the marketing people to fear.
  • If this practice of stagnation continues, then there will be a big demand for food in our growing country.

High Cost of Farm Inputs

In the past decades, the cost of farm inputs has increased. Farm inputs that include fertilizer, insecticides, pesticides and HYV seeds puts low and medium land holding, brings disadvantage to farmers.

Soil Exhaustion

  • Although green revolution brought a positive impact by decreasing hunger rate in India, it also resulted in negative consequences.
  • One among the negative consequences is soil exhaustion. This means loss of nutrients in the soil, which resulted after farming the same crop over and over again. The soil exhaustion usually occurs in rain forests.

Depletion of Fresh Ground Water

  • Another main negative consequence of green revolution is Depletion of fresh ground water. Green revolution was successful in some areas, because of the use of chemical fertilizers and irrigation.
  • Irrigation in dry areas like Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh are carried out by excessive use of ground water. Nowadays, fresh ground water is these states are in danger. There is a fear where there will be a water famine in the near future.

Adverse Impact of Global Climatic Change

  • Global climatic change is the disturbing challenge in the recent times. There՚s a prediction that the global climatic change will highly affect agriculture. In future, due to climatic change, there will be raise in temperature from to , resulting in increase in sea level and intense cyclones.
  • Rice production will be affected in coastal areas because of the increase in Saline water.

Impact of Globalization

  • Effect of globalization is found in the farm sector in India. Many countries are been affected by globalization.
  • This results in effect on farmer՚s income and threat to cultivation in India. This is mainly because of rise in input costs and falling output prices.

Providing Food Security

  • Before green revolution could come, we were not rich in food grain production. With the introduction of green revolution, food grain production increased rapidly and India became self-sufficient.
  • But, during the last one decade, the total production has become stagnant. Even though India has become self-sufficient in food goods, it is yet to provide food security. One of the toughest challenges faced in India is providing Food Security to the Indian Population.

Farmers Suicide

  • There are multiple cases of farmer՚s suicide in India. The major reasons for suicide are high commercialization of agriculture and very high debts. Cash crop farmers commit more suicide than those growing food crops. Withdrawal of bank credits and commercialization of the countryside are also the most answered reasons for the suicide of farmer.
  • This incident commonly happens in 5 states in India and they are Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. These states accounted for two-third of all farm suicides between 2003 and 2008. Crop failure, decline in social position, a fall in economical status are also the major factors for farmer՚s suicide.

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