NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 2 Medieval World, Introduction Part 1 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Title: Medieval World


  • In this chapter we are going to learn about the transformation of European society after the downfall of the Roman Empire.
  • Also, we are going to learn how the birth of a new religion called Islam led to the founding of a vast empire that originated in West Asia. Spread out over a large part of the world.
  • What happened after the decline of Harsha՚s rule, we are going to take a look at it in this chapter.

Europe in Medieval Times

  • Middle Ages or Medieval Period Refers to the period which succeeded the Ancient Period and came before the Modern Period.
  • For the Islamic world the medieval period was a period when a civilization flowered and reached the height of its glory.
  • The Medieval Period was an age of synthesis in India.
  • It saw a fusion of old and new;
    • Political
    • Economic
    • Social systems.
  • In India during the medieval period this fusion emerged a unique cultural pattern of co-existence and acceptance that became the hallmark.
  • The picture does not appear as gloomy in Europe as it is sometimes thought.
  • Level of material and cultural accomplishment was very low during the early part of the medieval period.
  • European improved their standard of living during the latter part of the medieval period.
  • In literature and art, they have reached very higher standards due to the development of new institutions of learning and new modes of thought.
  • The new thoughts that rose during this time not only changed Europe but also it had deeply affected the rest of the world in the occasions to come.

Decline of the Roman Empire

  • Rome - Western provinces had their capital
  • Constantinople - Eastern provinces had their capital
  • The Roman emperor Constantine had set up the new capital at ancient Greek city of Byzantine in 330 AD.
  • This city came to known as Constantinople after his name
  • Roman empire existed in the east for almost 1000 year after its collapse.
  • The eastern civilisation of Greek speaking people reached very high standards when western Europe was in a relatively backward condition in economic and cultural life.
  • The various tribes who came to attack the Roman Empire in the west:
    • Goths
    • Vandals
    • Visigothes
    • Franks
  • The invaders established separate successor states when Roman emperors were overthrown in 476 AD.
  • Societies of Roman and German came closer and merged with each other.
  • A new type of society was born in Europe due to the prevailing political and economical condition.
  • Feudalism became one of the most important institutions.

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