NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 20 Governance at the Union Level Part 5 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

Get unlimited access to the best preparation resource for CBSE/Class-10 : get questions, notes, tests, video lectures and more- for all subjects of CBSE/Class-10.

The Union Parliament

Functions of Parliament

  • Parliament is a law-making body.
  • Supreme legislative body or parliament performs functions that categorized as follows:

Legislative Functions

  • The central law will prevail if there is a clash between the Union government and the State government regarding concurrent subjects.
  • Residuary subjects
    • If any subject is not mentioned in any list, then it is called residuary subjects.
    • Residuary subjects come under jurisdiction of the Parliament.
  • Among any one of the two houses ordinary bills can be introduced.
  • The bill is passed to the Lok Sabha, then from Lok Sabha the bill is sent to Rajya Sabha which can pass the same bill or it can also suggest some changes.
  • If the two Houses disagree continuously then it has to be resolved by joint sitting of the two Houses.
  • In the joint sitting;
    • The Lok Sabha has an upper hand with 550 members.
    • The Rajya Sabha which has only a maximum of 250 members.
  • There will be only 3 joint sitting in both the houses.
  • After this the bill is passed to the president for his/her assent and with his/her assent the bill becomes a law.

Executive Functions

  • There is a close relationship between the legislature and the executive in the parliamentary form of system.
  • Atal Bihari Vjpayee՚s government lost the confidence motion in the Lok Sabha and it resigned in 1999.
  • The two Houses of Parliament maintain their control over the Council of Ministers through several other ways such as:
    • By asking questions and supplementary questions: In the parliament the first hour of every working day relates to question hour, in this question hour the members raise some question, these questions must be answered by the ministers.
    • By discussing and passing motions: By Calling some words like;
      • Attention Motion
      • Adjournment Motion
      • Censure Motion
    • These words can be moved and policies of the government can be debated and criticized.
    • By expressing lack of confidence: In the executive the Lok Sabha can express its lack of confidence by disapproving the budget or money bill or an ordinary bill.

Financial Functions

  • Some of important financial functions are;
    • It is the custodian of the public money.
    • It controls the entire purse of the Union government.
    • It sanctions, from time to time, money to the government to enable it to run the administration effectively and successfully.
  • The Parliament of India has been entrusted with the performance of important financial functions.
  • The demands can pass, reduce or reject by the parliament when the demands are granted by the government.
  • Only with the approval of the Parliament taxes can be collected and expenditure can be made.
  • The limitations on the Rajya Sabha;
    • In the Rajya Sabha no money bill cannot be introduced.
    • It has no power either to reject or amend a money bill.
    • It can only make recommendations on the money bill.
    • If the Rajya Sabha along with its recommendations if it doesn՚t return to Lok Sabha within 14 days, the bill is considered to have been passed by both the Houses.

Judicial Functions

  • It helps us to establish a common High Court for two or more States and also it constitutes a High Court even for a Union Territory.
    • A Chief Justice
    • Judge of the Supreme Court or of any High Court can be removed from his/her office by the President only after the process of impeachment by both the Houses of Parliament.
  • The Parliament is empowered to prescribe the number of Judges of the Supreme Court by law.

Miscellaneous Functions

  • Impeachment to remove the president and vice president, parliament has a power that is it will be selected by a special majority of votes.
  • It also has the power to amend the Constitution.
  • Certain other parts of the Constitution are often amended with a special majority of the Parliament and also the approval of the Legislatures of the States.
  • It has the power to amend the Constitution. Certain parts of the Constitution can be amended by a simple majority and certain others require two-thirds majority.

Comparative Position of Both the Houses of Parliament

  • In a parliamentary system, the lower house always plays a more important role and Accordingly, in our country also, the Lok Sabha is more powerful and effective.
  • To understand Comparative position of both the Houses there are some important points;
  • Lok Sabha is directly elected and therefore the true representative of the people of India. On the other hand, Rajya Sabha is indirectly elected.
  • Rajya Sabha - Is a permanent body.
  • Lok Sabha - Is elected for a definite period of 5 years.
  • Its tenure is often increased and it is often dissolved even before the expiry of the term.
  • Both the Houses have equal powers in case of ordinary bills.
  • But if the differences between both houses continue and a joint session is convened, the Lok Sabha gets a superiority, as its membership is quite double of that of the Rajya Sabha.
  • In regard of having authority over the Council of Ministers, by and by the Lok Sabha is more viable.
  • By debating on the policies, programmes and criticizing the government Rajya Sabha has control.
  • The Lok Sabha has the ability to pass a no-confidence motion which whenever, the Council of Minister resigns.
  • With regard to the constitutional amendments, almost both the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha have almost similar powers that includes;
    • election of the President and the Vice-President
    • impeachment or removal of;
      • President
      • Vice President
      • Chief Justice
      • Judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts
  • Whereas in financial matters, the Lok Sabha has a favourable position, it՚s only Rajya Sabha which will create a replacement All India Service and declare a topic within the State List to be of national importance.
  • From the above points we can understand that the Lok Sabha is more powerful than the Rajya Sabha.
  • It is not appropriate to state that the Rajya Sabha is not only the second chamber, but also a secondary chamber.

Impact of Union Government on Citizens and Their Daily Life

  • Many national level programs and schemes are formulated and implemented by the Union government, which have an impact upon our quality of life.
  • These programs include;
    • Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) - providing Aanganwadi for child nutrition and care
    • Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) - For universalizing elementary education,
    • Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) - For universalization of secondary education.
  • Some other Union government programs are;
    • The National Rural Health Mission,
    • Total Sanitation Campaign,
    • MNREGA (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act) , Indira Awas Yojana etc.

Developed by: