NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 21 the Political Parties and Pressure Groups Part 1 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Title: Political Parties and Pressure Groups

Political Parties

  • A political party is generally described as an organized body of people who share common principles and cherish certain common goals regarding the political system.
  • Gilchrist defines a political party as
    • “An organized group of citizens who profess or share the same political views and who by acting as a political unit, try to control the government” .
  • They enable people to participate in elections and other processes of governance, educate them and facilitate them to make policy choices.
  • Its objectives revolve around seeking political power through collective efforts
  • It employs constitutional and peaceful methods in seeking control over the government through elections

Functions and Role

  • They nominate candidates during elections;
  • Those securing the majority in elections form the government and enact and implement the policies;
  • Those not in power form opposition and keep a constant check on the government;
  • They educate people and help in formulating and shaping public opinion;
  • They articulate peoples՚ demands and convey them to the government;
  • They provide a linkage between people and governmental institutions.

Evolution and Growth of Political Parties

  • The establishment of Indian National Congress in 1885 in India is generally considered as the beginning of the formation of parties.
  • During this period like the Muslim League, the Communist Party of India, the Hindu Mahasabha, etc.
  • After independence in 1947, the Indian National Congress contested elections and formed the government. It remained a dominant political party up to 1967.
  • From 1977, The Janata Party which was in fact a coalition of various factions like the Congress O, the Jana Sangh, the Socialists, the Bharatiya Lok Dal, and the Congress for Democracy emerged.
  • Since 1999 two broad coalitions have come up – one, known as the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) , led by the Bharatiya Janata Party, and the second, known as the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) , led by the Congress Party.

Party System in India

  • India had a single-party dominant system till 1967.
  • It was a bi-party system between 1977 and 1980.
  • It is more a less a multiparty system because the national political parties depend largely on the support of regional political parties

Features of India՚s Party System

  • India has a multi-party system
  • India has witnessed the emergence of a bi-nodal party system. The bi-nodal tendencies operating at two poles are led by the Congress and the BJP both at the center and in the states.
  • Political parties are not hegemonic but competitive
  • The regional political parties have come to play a vital role in the formation of governments at the Centre

Types of Political Parties

  • National Political Parties have areas of influence extending over the entire country
  • Regional Political Parties, as recognized by the Election Commission, are those political parties which receive a certain number of votes or seats in a State

Indian Political Parties and Their Policies

The Indian National Congress

  • Congress is committed to democracy, secularism, and socialism
  • It champions the policy of liberalization, privatization, globalization called “LPG”
  • It advocates both agrarian-based Indian economy and industrialization

The Bharatiya Janata Party

  • The BJP stands for
    • nationalism and national integration,
    • democracy,
    • positive secularism,
    • Gandhian socialism, and
    • value-based politics.

The Communist Parties

  • The Communist Parties are workers՚ and peasants՚ parties.
  • Based on the ideology of Marxism and Leninism, the Communist Parties stand for socialism, socialist ownership of industries, agrarian reforms, rural upliftment and a self-reliant economy.
  • They are opposed to capitalism, imperialism and globalization.

The Bahujan Samaj Party

It is the party of the deprived sections of the Indian society, especially the poor, the landless, the unemployed and the Dalits who constitute the majority in the Indian population.

Nationalist Congress Party

The party՚s policies are more or less the same as that of the Congress.

The Rashtriya Janata Dal

The party stands for socialist programmes and social justice for the backward castes and minorities.

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