NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 23 Challenges to Indian Democracy Part 2 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Corrective Measures

Universal Literacy ‘Education for All’

  • Parliament of India in 2009 passed the Right to Education Act through which education has become a fundamental right for all children of age group 6 - 14 years
  • Numerous programs and policies are also implemented in this direction.
  • But the goal of universal literacy is yet to be attained.

Poverty Alleviation

  • There are programmes to lift beneficiaries above the poverty line by providing them with productive assets or skills or both so that they can employ themselves usefully and earn a greater income.
  • Programmes are also being implemented to provide temporary wage employment for the poor and the landless like MNREGA

Elimination of Gender Discrimination

  • The 73rd and 74th Amendments of Indian Constitution in 1993 have reserved one-third of the seats in the Panchayati Raj Institutions, Municipalities and Municipal Corporations.
  • The adoption of the National Policy for Empowerment of Women in 2001, the overarching goal of which is to “bring about the advancement, development and empowerment of women.”

Removal of Regional Imbalance

  • The major programmes are:
    • the Tribal Development Programme,
    • the Hill Area Development Programme,
    • the Border Area Development Programme,
    • the Western Ghat Development Programme,
    • the Drought Prone Area Programme and
    • the Desert Development Programme.

Administrative and Judicial Reforms

  • The recommendations of various Commissions and Committees for administrative reforms focus around the need
    • to make administration accountable and citizen-friendly,
    • to build its capacity for quality governance,
    • to orient administration for promoting peoples՚ participation, decentralization and devolution of powers,
    • to make the administrative decision-making process transparent,
    • to improve the performance and integrity of the public services,
    • to reinforce ethics in administration, and
    • to inculcate readiness for e-governance.
  • Various recommendations have been made for judicial reforms
    • Simplification of Rules and Procedures,
    • Repealing Out-dated Laws,
    • Increase in the Judge Population Ratio,
    • Time-bound filling of Vacant Posts in Judiciary,
    • Transparency in Appointment, Promotion and Transfer of Judges,
    • Judicial Accountability; and
    • Transparency of Court Proceedings.

Sustainable Development

  • The development has to be human-centred and directed towards the improvement of quality of life of all the people.
  • It has to be focused on the removal of poverty, ignorance, discrimination, disease and unemployment.
  • The development process has to aim at sustained economic, social and environmental development.

Role of Citizens in a Democracy

Appreciation of Opportunities for Citizens՚ Role

  • The key role of citizens in a democracy is to participate in public life.
  • Citizens have to make the democratic system responsive and responsible. The instruments created by the Right to Information Act, 2005 in our country enable citizens to play their role effectively.
  • A citizen has to accept that freedom is never absolute.

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