NIOS Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 26 Environmental Degradation and Disaster Management Part 7 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Disaster Management

Disaster Management
  • Environmental degradation has serious implications.
  • “Natural disaster” A natural disaster occurs when a natural hazard (e. g. , volcanic eruption or earthquake or flood) affects human life.
  • “Human-made disasters” A disaster caused by human action, such as negligence, error, or by the failure of a system.
  • Examples of such disasters are:
    • Bhopal Gas Tragedy
    • Landslides that take place in different parts of our country
    • Floods due to breaches in dams.
  • “Disaster management” Minimizing the adverse effects of natural and human-made disasters by adopting suitable strategies.
Disaster Management
  • Its process involves four phases:
    • Mitigation
    • Preparedness
    • Response
    • Recovery


  • Mitigation appears to you as a technical or difficult term.
  • It implies the effort that are made to keep hazards from forming into disasters, or to reduce the impacts of disasters to the base, when they happen.
  • The mitigation stage contrasts from different stages since it centers around long-term measures for reducing or eliminating risks.
  • Before the phase of mitigation, there may be a phase of the identification of risks and It is better to identify the risks before you plan and make efforts to reduce the impact of disaster.


Disaster managers develop plans of action for when the disaster strikes.

This disaster action includes;

  • Communication plans with easily understandable terminology and methods
  • Proper maintenance and training of emergency services
  • Development of emergency shelters and evacuation plans
  • Getting ready and maintaining disaster supplies and equipment
  • Developing organizations of trained volunteers among civilian populations.


  • Under Response phases are taken when a disaster occurs.
  • These include the activation of the vital emergency services and also of people individuals who react quickly in hazardous situations.
  • Emergency services, such as firefighters, police and ambulance crews.


Recovery Phase
  • The affected areas are restored to their previous state by the recovery phase.
  • The recovery phase differs from the response phase in its focus.

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